Motivation and emotion/Book/2015/Attributions and arousal

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Attributions and arousal:
How do attributions influence experience of arousal?

Overview[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

What is Arousal?[edit | edit source]

[Provide more detail]

Definition[edit | edit source]

The construct of arousal is made up of multidimensional aspects. The three aspects that make up this construct are the body’s alertness, activation and wakefulness[factual?]. Each of these processes contribute a differing function and aspect to the human body. The comprising construct of activity of these processes make up the complete construct of arousal[factual?].

Arousal primarily is controlled in the brain by the reticular activating system (RAS). The location of the RAS is in the brain stem and it enables it to project to other brain structures such as the cortex. The reticular activating system works as rhythm control for your body. When your body is quiet and subdued you may feel sleepy, unmotivated, slow moving and have difficulty concentrating. When your body rhythm is apace, symptoms experienced can be alertness, readiness to respond to situations and feeling highly active.  

Brain Structure[edit | edit source]

Noradrenergic neurons.png

The brain structures that enable arousal to form is the reticular formation. The reticular formation extends through the medulla oblongata, pons and the midbrain. It is a cluster of loosely held together neurons in otherwise white tissue matter[factual?]. The structures of the brain that release the chemicals for arousal (put in chemical name[say what?]) also release the chemicals for alertness and wakefulness in persons. 

Arousal is caused and regulated by many different neural systems, primarily the brainstem and the basal forebrain which includes the locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic system, which is the main source of norepinephrine (NE) which acts as a hormone and neurotransmitter (Berridge, 2007). The LC nucleus delivers NE to the hippocampus and neocortex which is important in enhancing cognitive and affective processors (Berridge, & Waterhouse, 2003).  

Physiology of Arousal[edit | edit source]

Arousal is subject to differing levels of chemicals and structures that work against and with one another. Locus coeruleus and norepinephrine relationships neurotransmission is able to be determined by lesions of noradrenergic and acute suppression results in observable sedation (Berridge, 2007).

Whilst this is cited, Flicker and Geyer (1982), saw results of behavioural activiation when an infusion of norepinephrine is intracerebroventricularly into the forebrain. It is noted though in this study that because the locus coeruleus (LC) is so small and its proximity to the brainstem arousal centre to definitively say the LC is the site involved in this drug-induced reaction in changes to the behavioural state

Locus Coreuleus and Arousal[edit | edit source]

A legion of lesion and pharmacological studies were undertaken to gauge(determine) if there was the existence of a casual relationship between the locus coeruleus neuronal activity and the activity of arousal in humans (Berridge, 2008). The first studies undertaken examined the sufficiency to which a neurotransmitter is abled to generate a modification in the bodies arousal state (Berridge., 2008).   

A general understanding of the noradrenergic system relates that lesions of the noradrenergic systems have inconsistent impacts on results of the EEG’s and behavioural indices of arousal, reflecting the occurrence of lesion-induced compensation within the Locus coeruleus- NE system. Lidbrink (1974) mounted a consistency with that and 6 lesions placed on the dorsal noradrenergic bundle, which produced an increase in slow-wave EEG activity, but after a  period of 7 days the effects were seen to have disappeared.

In comparison with lesions of noradrenergic, profound sedation was found when acute suppression of the LC-NE neurotransmitters by systemic, ICV or intrabrainstem was performed (Berridge, 2008).  Despite the consistency of results, the proximity of the LC to the other brainstem arousal-related nuclei it is therefore definitively impossible to conclude that the LC is the only system in affect for the drug-induced changes in the behavioural state.

Remote control infusions of NE were made into sleeping animals. Using this technique enabled researchers to examine the behavioural state in the an anaesthetized or anaesthetized rats. Using this directive of intratissue infusion of the receptors yielded robust and dose-dependent increases in EEG activation in the anaesthetized animals and the boost of EEG/EMG and behavioural states of waking in unanaesthetized animals. Infusions outside of these areas however are devoid of any wake promoting actions (Berridge et al, 1996).

Remote control infusions of NE were made into sleeping animals. Using this technique enabled researchers to examine the behavioural state in the an anaesthetized or anaesthetized rats. Using this directive of intratissue infusion of the receptors yielded robust and dose-dependent increases in EEG activation in the anaesthetized animals and the boost of EEG/EMG and behavioural states of waking in unanaesthetized animals. Infusions outside of these areas however are devoid of any wake promoting actions (Berridge et al, 1996). Studies involving these animals and anaesthetization and anaesthetization inform on important information on conditions with chemically defined arousal systems and when they are active (Robbins, 1997). Spontaneous activity of a system can be measured in relation to the stages of the wake/sleep cycle. The neuronal cells within the LC of rats, cats and monkeys fire monotonically affiliations to the stages of sleep and waking, with wakening levels having the highest occurring levels (Robbins, 1997, Foote et al., 1983).

Attributions[edit | edit source]

Fundamental attribution error[edit | edit source]

Folk physics and folk morality, and those ordinary physical intuitions that are untrained and consequently more often in error then good judgement[say what?]. Considering inadequacies of ordinary physical intuition, it is a reasonable request to wonder if the ordinary moral intuitions may be of similar inadequacy (Harman, 1999)[say what?].

Studies conducted by Forgas (1998) included 3 experiments. These experiments found that a generally accepted theory that negative moods decrease the fundamental attribution error, and positive mood increased the fundamental attribution error (FAE) in part because of the information-processing repercussions of the affective states. Experiment 1 showed that a sad mood decreased and a happy mood increased the dispositional attributions based on the coerced essays of persons writing on unpopular views within the community. Experiment 2 was able to replicate these results of effect using an unobtrusive mood induction techniques within a field study. Experiment 3 once more replicated these results as well as showing that changes in the fundamental attribution error were also linked to mood induced differences in processing style. This is indicated by the use of memory data and confirmed through mediational analyses (Forgas, 1998, Harvey, Town & Yarkin, 1981).

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

The brain structures that control arousal control also alertness and wakefulness, the main chemical used in this process is norepinephrine. Although arousal is regulated and caused by many differing neural systems they all tie back into the brainstem and basal forebrain primarily. The main source norepinephrine is drawn from is the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system. This system acts as a neurotransmitter for the body and hormones.

The easiest way to determine the height activity of arousal and what causes it is through lesions that measure the locus coeruleus. These lesions however cannot be definitive because of the small size and location of the locus coeruleus.

The fundamental attribution error and arousal have a tangible history with one another. An original source for this is folk physics and morality. Although these are more often than not incorrect people still use their intuition of these subjects as a guide. Studies conducted have shown that if arousal if rated lower or a more negative mood is detected than the fundamental attribution error (FAE) is statistically going to be smaller than is the mood is more positive or arousal is rated higher.

All in all arousal and attribution would depend on the circumstances of the study being conducted but can be generalised to more positive equals higher error and more negative equals lower error when it comes to judgment.

See also[edit | edit source]

Motivation and emotion/Book/2014/Reticular formation, arousal and emotion

Motivation and emotion/Textbook/Motivation/Arousal

Reference list[edit | edit source]

Barnes, C., & Pompeiano, O. Neurobiology of the locus coeruleus.

Berger, J. (2011). Arousal Increases Social Transmission of Information. Psychological Science, 22(7), 891-893.

Berridge, C. (2008). Noradrenergic modulation of arousal. Brain Research Reviews, 58(1), 1-17.

Browne, H., Adams, L., Simonds, A., & Morrell, M. (2003). Sleep apnoea and daytime function in the elderly—what is the impact of arousal frequency?. Respiratory Medicine, 97(10), 1102-1108.

Buzsaki, G., Kennedy, B., Solt, V., & Ziegler, M. (1991). Noradrenergic Control of Thalamic Oscillation: the Role of alpha-2 Receptors. European Journal Of Neuroscience, 3(3), 222-229.

Fekete, T., Pitowsky, I., Grinvald, A., & Omer, D. (2009). Arousal increases the representational capacity of cortical tissue. Journal Of Computational Neuroscience, 27(2), 211-227.

Foote, S., Bloom, F., & Aston-Jones KC, G. (1983). Nucleus locus coeruleus: new evidence of anatomical and physiological specificity. Physiological Review, 63, 8444914.

Forgas, J. (1998). On being happy and mistaken: Mood effects on the fundamental attribution error. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 75(2), 318-331.

Harman, G. (1999). XIV-Moral Philosophy Meets Social Psychology: Virtue Ethics and the Fundamental Attribution Error. Proceedings Of The Aristotelian Society, 99(3), 315-331.

Harvey, J., Town, J., & Yarkin, K. (1981). How fundamental is "the fundamental attribution error"?. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 40(2), 346.

Libkuman, T., Nichols-Whitehead, P., Griffith, J., & Thomas, R. (1999). Source of arousal and memory for detail. Mem Cogn, 27(1), 166-190.

Lidbrink, P. (1974). The effect of lesions of ascending noradrenaline pathways on sleep and waking in the rat. Brain Research, 74(1), 19-40.

Provini, F., Tinuper, P., Bisulli, F., & Lugaresi, E. (2011). Arousal disorders. Sleep Medicine, 12, S22-S26.

Reisenzein, R. (1994). Pleasure-arousal theory and the intensity of emotions. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 67(3), 525-539.

Robbins, T. (1997). Arousal systems and attentional processes. Biological Psychology, 45(1-3), 57-71.

Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2007). Staying awake puts pressure on brain arousal systems. Journal Of Clinical Investigation, 117(12), 3648-3650.

External links[edit | edit source]