Introduction to Regional Anatomy/Lesson 4

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Introduction to Regional Anatomy - Lesson 4
The Movements of the Human Body

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Introduction to Regional Anatomy
Lesson: Lesson 4
Level: Undergraduate
Suggested Prerequisites: no prerequisites
Time Investment: 15mins
Assessment Methods: Quiz
Portal: Science
School: Biology/Medicine
Division: Anatomy
Department: Regional Anatomy
Lesson Coordinator: =Benjamin= (talk)



Flexion Extension Arm.png
Flexion Extension Leg.png
Protraction Retraction.png
Plantarflexion dorsiflexion.png

Reading:[edit]

There are many ways the body can move. Terms have been created to standardise communication about these movements. It is important for an anatomist to understand terms given to movements, so take the time to learn these terms well. Later lessons will rely heavily on your knowledge of these. The following table describes all the anatomical movement terms you will need to know for later lessons. Any terms not covered here will be covered later in detail. All movements assume beginning in the anatomical position, unless otherwise stated.

Movements of the Human Body
Flexion Decreasing the angle between two bones. When seated, the knees are flexed.
Extension The opposite of flexion. Increasing the angle between two bones.
Adduction Moving the distal end of a body part towards the midline, while the proximal end remains fixed in place. The motion made during the downward stroke of a "flapping" motion is an example of adduction. The fingers may also be adducted towards the middle finger.
Abduction The opposite of adduction. Moving the distal end of a body part away from the midline, while the proximal end remains fixed in place. The fingers may also be abducted away from the middle finger.
Elevation The movement of a whole structure superiorly. This type of movement has no pivot point. The shoulder blades (scapulae) are elevated during a shrug. Ribs (costae) are elevated during inhalation.
Depression The opposite of Elevation. The movement of a whole structure inferiorly. The shoulder blades (scapulae) can be depressed. The ribs (costae) are depressed when expelling air from the lungs.
Circumduction The movement of the distal end of a body part in a circular movement, while the proximal end remains fixed in place. Circumduction occurs at the shoulder when bowling in cricket.
Rotation The rotation of a bone around its long axis. Can be medial (towards the midline anteriorly) or lateral (away from the midline posteriorly). Flexing the forearm at the elbow and then touching the hand to the navel gives rise to medial rotation at the shoulder. Lateral rotation is the opposite to this.
Supination The rotation of the hand to face the palm anteriorly (usually lateral rotation). This term is used in the arm and hand because rotation here is not caused by the movement of a bone in a socket, rather, by the lateral forearm bone (the radius) crossing over the medial forearm bone (the ulna). This will be covered in more detail in a later lesson.
Pronation The opposite of supination. The rotation of the hand to face the palm posteriorly (usually medial rotation). Supination and pronation can also occur in the feet, however this will be covered in a later lesson.
Dorsiflexion Decreasing the angle between the dorsum of the foot and the front of the shin. Dorsiflexion is generally more accepted than flexion when referring to the ankle, however true flexion of the ankle is sometimes used.
Plantarflexion Opposite to dorsiflexion. Increasing the angle between the dorsum of the foot and the front of the shin. Plantarflexion is generally more accepted than extension when referring to the ankle, however true extension of the ankle is sometimes used.
Inversion The tilting of the foot at the ankle to face the plantar surface towards the midline.
Eversion The opposite of Inversion. The tilting of the foot at the ankle to face the plantar surface of the foot away from the midline.
Protrusion Generally only applied to the jaw. The anterior displacement of the jaw.
Retrusion The opposite of protrusion. The returning of the jaw from protrusion.
Protraction The anterior movement of the shoulder blades (scapulae) across the torso. Hunching the shoulders forwards gives the best example of this.
Retraction The opposite of protraction. The posterior movement of the shoulder blades (scapulae) across the torso. Pushing the chest out while drawing the shoulder blades together is a good example of this.

Quiz:[edit]

for any short answer quiz questions, please answer in lower case.

1

When eating popcorn to bring a kernel to the mouth you

the forearm and

at the elbow.

2

Fanning the fingers is also known as

.

3

During free-stroke swimming

occurs at the shoulder and

and

occur at the hips.


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