Indo-European languages

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This page provides a classification of the Indo-European languages and analyses of the major European languages.

For an overview of the Indo-European languages, including spread and classification, please see Wikipedia's article on Indo-European languages.

Germanic Languages[edit]

  • Western Germanic
    • Anglo-Frisian
      • English Languages/Anglic
        • Old English (OE:Anglo-Saxon; spoken between approx. 450 - 1100 CE)
        • Middle English (ME:Anglo-Norman; spoken between approx. 1100 - 1500 CE)
          • Yola Language (spoken between ? - mid-16th century CE)
        • Early Modern English (EMnE; spoken between approx. 1500 - 1650 CE)
        • Modern English (MnE; spoken beginning approx. 1650 - present) However, there are some divergent dialects of Modern English where phonology and orthography vary, particularly among British English (including South African English, Australian English, etc.) and North American English.
        • Scots
          • Early Scots (spoken between approx. ? - 1450 CE)
          • Middle Scots (spoken between 1450 - 1700 CE)
          • Modern Scots
      • Frisian Languages
        • West Frisian
        • Saterland Frisian
        • North Frisian
        • Middle Frisian (spoken between approx. 1500 - 1820 CE)
        • Old Frisian (spoken between approx. 700 - 1500 CE)
    • Low German
      • Dutch Low German
      • West Low German
      • East Low German
      • Low Franconian Languages (sometimes defined as seperate branch of West German)
        • Afrikaans
        • Dutch
          • Flemish
    • High German
    • b:German
    • Yiddish
    • Luxembourgish
    • Central German Dialects
    • Upper German Dialects
    • Vilamovian
  • Northern Germanic (Scandinavian)'
    • Danish
    • Icelandic
    • Norwegian
    • Swedish
    • Faeroese
    • Norn
    • Elfdalian
  • East Germanic (extinct)
    • Gothic
    • Crimean Gothic
    • Vandalic
    • Burgundian

Romance Languages[edit]

  • French
  • b:Italian
  • Portuguese
  • Romanian
  • b:Spanish
  • b:Catalan
  • Aragonese
  • Asturian
  • Francoprovençal
  • Northern Italian
  • Occitan
  • Rhaeto-Romanic
  • Sardinian

Slavic Languages[edit]

  • 'Western
    • Czech
    • Polish
    • Slovak
    • Sorbian (also called Lusatian or Wendish - a Slavic language spoken by an isolated group in East Germany)
  • Eastern
    • Belarussian
    • Russian
    • Ukrainian
  • Southern

Baltic[edit]

  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian

Celtic[edit]

Hellenic (Greek)[edit]

Albanian[edit]

  • Tosk
    • Standard Albanian
    • Arbëresh
    • Arvanitiki
  • Gheg

Armenian[edit]

Indo-Iranian[edit]

  • Indo-Aryan (Indic)
    • Assamese
    • Bengali
    • Bihari
    • Gujarati(ગુજરાતી)
    • HIndi(हिन्दी)
    • Urdu(اردو)
    • Marathi
    • Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ)
    • Romani
    • Sanskrit
    • Sindhi
    • Singhalese
  • Iranian
    • Avestan
    • Baluchi
    • Persian
    • Kurdish
    • Pashto (Afghan)
    • Sogdian