IT Fundamentals/Installation and Configuration

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Installation or setup is the act of making the system or program ready for execution. Because the process varies for each program and each computer, programs (including operating systems) often come with an installer, a specialized program responsible for doing whatever is needed for their installation.[1] Configuration is an arrangement of functional units according to their nature, number, and chief characteristics. Often, configuration pertains to the choice of hardware, software, firmware, settings, and documentation. The configuration affects system function and performance.[2] This lesson covers operating system and application installation, configuration, updates, and licensing.

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the installation and configuration portion of IT Fundamentals certification include:[3]

  • Perform appropriate steps to set up a basic workstation
    • Plug in cables
    • Power on computer
    • Follow initial operating system setup wizard
      • Localization settings
      • Screen resolution
      • Audio settings
    • Install security software
    • Configure peripherals (if applicable)
    • Uninstall unneeded software (if applicable)
    • Configure and verify Internet connection
    • Install additional software (if applicable)
    • Run software and security updates
    • Other user accounts (if applicable)
    • Basic cable management
  • Given a scenario, use software management best practices
    • Install / uninstall
      • OS features
      • Applications
      • Drivers
    • Patching / updates for OS, drivers, applications and security software
      • Scheduling
      • Frequency
      • Automatic updates
    • Software version identification and compatibility
    • Licensing
      • Product keys
      • Single / multi-license

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  2. Wikipedia: Windows Update
  3. Wikipedia: Software license
  4. Wikipedia: Control Panel (Windows)
  5. Wikipedia: System Preferences

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Formatting and Clean Install of Windows 10
  2. YouTube: How to Fresh/Clean Install Mac OS X Yosemite to a SSD or HDD
  3. YouTube: How to install Ubuntu 14.04 LTS on a USB drive
  4. YouTube: IT Fundamentals - Control Panel
  5. YouTube: Windows Updates
  6. YouTube: IT Fundamentals - Creating User Accounts in Windows
  7. YouTube: Controlling User Accounts

Activities[edit]

  1. Install an operating system:
  2. Perform system updates:
  3. Add features:
    • Windows 7: Review Microsoft: Turn Windows Features On or Off. Open the Windows Features dialog box and examine the various Game options available. If all games are off, select one or more games and turn them on. If all games are on, select at least one game and turn it off. Check the Start menu / All Programs / Games to verify if the feature was added or removed. Then reverse the setting to either install it again or uninstall it to return your system to its original configuration.
    • Windows 8: Review Microsoft: Turn Windows Features On or Off. Use the Start Menu Search feature to run Turn Windows Features On or Off. Test enabling a feature by adding the Telnet Client. Then uninstall it to return your system to its original setting. (Games and other applications may be added through the Windows Store.)
    • OS X: Review Apple: App Store. Use the App Store to install a game. Then use the Finder and go to the Applications folder. Find the game you installed and move it to the trash to delete it.
    • Linux: Review Control-Escape: Installing Software on Linux. Using your system's package manager, install one more games. Confirm the game was installed. Then use the package manager to uninstall the game.
  4. Configure keyboard, mouse, display, sound, etc.
    • Windows: Review Microsoft: Working with Control Panel. Use Control Panel applets to configure keyboard, mouse, display, sound, and other settings.
    • OS X: Review Apple: Set Your Preferences. Use System Preferences to configure keyboard, mouse, display, sound, and other settings.
    • Linux: System settings vary by distribution. Search the Internet for system settings information for your Linux distribution. Use system settings applications to configure keyboard, mouse, display, sound, and other settings.
  5. Create user accounts.
    • Windows: Review Microsoft: Create a User Account and Microsoft: Change User Account Types. Create a new administrator account and a new standard user account. Test the accounts and identify differences between the account types. Delete the accounts when you're finished.
    • OS X: Review Apple: Set Up Users on Your Mac. Create a new administrator account and a new standard user account. Test the accounts and identify differences between the account types. Delete the accounts when you're finished.
    • Linux: User management tools vary by distribution. Search the Internet for information on how to create or add users for your Linux distribution. Create a new administrator account and a new standard user account. Test the accounts and identify differences between the account types. Delete the accounts when you're finished.
  6. Research and compare license and support costs for Windows, OS X, and Linux.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution.[4]
  • Installation typically involves code being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system.[5]
  • Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder. For example, registry files and other system code may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.[6]
  • Common operations performed during software installations include:[7]
    • Making sure that necessary system requirements are met
    • Checking for existing versions of the software
    • Creating or updating program files and folders
    • Adding configuration data such as configuration files, Windows registry entries or environment variables
    • Making the software accessible to the user, for instance by creating links, shortcuts or bookmarks
    • Configuring components that run automatically, such as daemons or Windows services
    • Performing product activation
    • Updating the software versions
  • Windows Update is a service offered by Microsoft that provides updates for Windows components.[8]
  • Microsoft Update is a service offered by Microsoft that provides updates for Windows components and other Microsoft software.[9]
  • A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.[10]
  • Software licenses are typically either proprietary licenses or free and open source licenses.[11]
  • With proprietary software licenses, the software publisher grants the use of one or more copies of software under the end-user license agreement (EULA), but ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher.[12]
  • Free and open-source licenses generally fall under two categories: Those with the aim to have minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed (permissive licenses), and those that aim to preserve the freedoms that are given to the users by ensuring that all subsequent users receive those rights (copyleft Licenses).[13]
  • The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets.[14]
  • System Preferences is an application included with the OS X operating system that allows users to modify various system settings which are divided into separate preference panes.[15]

Key Terms[edit]

accessibility
Refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities.[16]
attended installation
Software installation that requires a user to be present and interact with the installation process.[17]
automated installation
Software installation that runs at a preset time or when a predefined condition transpires,[18]
automatic updates
A configuration that allows an operating system or application to automatically download and install system updates.[19]
bloatware
Software that becomes perceptibly slower, use more memory/diskspace or processing power, or have higher hardware requirements than the previous version whilst making only dubious user-perceptible improvements.[20]
booting (bootstrapping)
Refers to the process of loading the basic software into the memory of a computer after power-on or general reset, especially the operating system which will then take care of loading other software as needed.[21]
bundled software
Software distributed with another product such as a piece of computer hardware or other electronic device, or a group of software packages which are sold together.[22]
cable management
Devices or effort used to support and contain cables during system installation, and makes subsequent maintenance or changes to the cable system easier.[23]
clean installation
Software installation that is done in the absence of any interfering elements such as old versions of the computer program being installed or leftovers from a previous installation.[24]
control panel
A system utility that give the user control over hardware and software settings.[25]
copyleft
The practice of using copyright law to offer the right to distribute copies and modified versions of a work and requiring that the same rights be preserved in modified versions of the work.[26]
display resolution
A display setting that determines the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can or will be displayed.[27]
EULA (End User License Agreement)
A license agreement for proprietary software that provides a contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software.[28]
GNU GPL (GNU General Public License)
The most widely used free software license, which guarantees end users (individuals, organizations, companies) the freedoms to use, study, share (copy), and modify the software.[29]
Hardware Compatibility List
A list of computer hardware (typically including peripheral devices) that is compatible with a particular operating system or device management software.[30]
headless installation
Software installation performed without using a computer monitor connected to the system.[31]
hotfix
A single, cumulative package that is used to address a problem in a software product. Typically, hotfixes are made to address a specific customer situation, undergo less regression testing, and have more limited distribution than patches.[32]
Kickstart
An installation method used primarily by Red Hat Enterprise Linux to automatically perform unattended operating system installation and configuration.[33]
localization
A means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market.[34]
multi-licensing
The practice of distributing software under two or more different sets of terms and conditions.[35]
network installation
Software installation from a shared network resource.[36]
patch
A piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.[37]
portable application
A program designed to run on a compatible computer without being installed in a way that modifies the computer's configuration information.[38]
product activation
A license validation procedure required by some proprietary computer software programs.[39]
product key
A specific software-based key for a computer program that certifies that the copy of the program is original.[40]
screen resolution
Another name for display resolution.[41]
SID (Security Identifier / System Identifier)
A unique, immutable identifier of a user, user group, or other security principal.[42]
silent installation
Software installation that does not display messages or windows during its progress.[43]
System Restore
A feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.[44]
unattended installation
Software installation that is performed without user interaction during its progress or with no user present at all.[45]
upgrade
A replacement of hardware, software or firmware with a newer or better version, in order to bring the system up to date or to improve its characteristics.[46]
Windows Defender
An anti-malware program developed by Microsoft and included in Windows Vista and later operating systems.[47]

Review Questions[edit]

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  1. Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is _____.
    Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution.
  2. Installation typically involves _____.
    Installation typically involves code being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system.
  3. Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than _____. For example, _____ may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.
    Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder. For example, registry files and other system code may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.
  4. Common operations performed during software installations include _____.
    Common operations performed during software installations include:
    • Making sure that necessary system requirements are met
    • Checking for existing versions of the software
    • Creating or updating program files and folders
    • Adding configuration data such as configuration files, Windows registry entries or environment variables
    • Making the software accessible to the user, for instance by creating links, shortcuts or bookmarks
    • Configuring components that run automatically, such as daemons or Windows services
    • Performing product activation
    • Updating the software versions
  5. Windows Update is _____.
    Windows Update is a service offered by Microsoft that provides updates for Windows components.
  6. Microsoft Update is _____.
    Microsoft Update is a service offered by Microsoft that provides updates for Windows components and other Microsoft software.
  7. A software license is _____.
    A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.
  8. Software licenses are typically either _____ licenses or _____ licenses.
    Software licenses are typically either proprietary licenses or free and open source licenses.
  9. With proprietary software licenses, _____.
    With proprietary software licenses, the software publisher grants the use of one or more copies of software under the end-user license agreement (EULA), but ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher.
  10. Free and open-source licenses generally fall under two categories: _____, and _____.
    Free and open-source licenses generally fall under two categories: Those with the aim to have minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed (permissive licenses), and those that aim to preserve the freedoms that are given to the users by ensuring that all subsequent users receive those rights (copyleft Licenses).
  11. The Control Panel is _____.
    The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets.
  12. System Preferences is _____.
    System Preferences is an application included with the OS X operating system that allows users to modify various system settings which are divided into separate preference panes.

Assessments[edit]

References[edit]

Nuvola apps edu miscellaneous.svg Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
Progress-1000.svg Completion status: this resource is considered to be complete.
  1. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  2. Wikipedia: Computer configuration
  3. CompTIA IT Fundamentals Certification Exam Objectives (FC0-U51)
  4. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  5. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  6. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  7. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  8. Wikipedia: Windows Update
  9. Wikipedia: Windows Update
  10. Wikipedia: Software license
  11. Wikipedia: Software license
  12. Wikipedia: Software license
  13. Wikipedia: Software license
  14. Wikipedia: Control Panel (Windows)
  15. Wikipedia: System Preferences
  16. Wikipedia: Accessibility
  17. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  18. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  19. Wikipedia: Windows Update
  20. Wikipedia: Software bloat
  21. Wikipedia: Bootstrapping
  22. Wikipedia: Bundled software
  23. Wikipedia: Cable management
  24. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  25. Wikipedia: Control panel (software)
  26. Wikipedia: Copyleft
  27. Wikipedia: Display resolution
  28. Wikipedia: End-user license agreement
  29. Wikipedia: GNU General Public License
  30. Wikipedia: Hardware compatibility list
  31. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  32. Wikipedia: Hotfix
  33. Wikipedia: Kickstart (Linux)
  34. Wikipedia: Internationalization and localization
  35. Wikipedia: Multi-licensing
  36. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  37. Wikipedia: Patch (computing)
  38. Wikipedia: Portable application
  39. Wikipedia: Product activation
  40. Wikipedia: Product key
  41. Wikipedia: Display resolution
  42. Wikipedia: Security Identifier
  43. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  44. Wikipedia: System Restore
  45. Wikipedia: Installation (computer programs)
  46. Wikipedia: Upgrade
  47. Wikipedia: Windows Defender