# How to use SPSS/Descriptives

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Resource type: this resource contains a tutorial or tutorial notes. |

## Descriptive & Graphical Exercise Using SPSS[edit | edit source]

- Assumed knowledge: Allen and Bennett Chapter 3: Summarising and displaying data (pp. 19-32)
- For univariate descriptive statistics and graph(s), determine the level of measurement and then decide on appropriate statistics and graphing.
- Download and open the datafile: World95.xls
- Conduct the univariate and bivariate descriptive and graphical analyses outlined below.

## Univariate[edit | edit source]

Determine the level of measurement and obtain appropriate univariate descriptives and graphs to depict the nature of responses to each of the following variables:

- LIFEEXPF (Life expectancy for females)
- RELIGION (Main religion of country)

Statistically, you may consider using:

- frequency / % / mode
- median
- mean, SD, skewness, kurtosis

Graphically, you may consider using:

- bar graph
- pie chart
- stem and leaf plot
- boxplot
- histogram
- line graph
- error bar

## Converting tables and graphs to APA style[edit | edit source]

Default SPSS tables and graphs generally need considerable editing in order to be presented in APA style.

- Figures - edit in chart editor, then copy into word processor

- Caption below - note italicisation, capitalisation
- Greyscale unless Colour is really needed
- Axis titles
- Legend - if needed
- More info and examples: [1], [2]

- Tables - copy to word processor and edit

- Caption above - note italicsation, capitalisation
- Horizontal lines above and below heading row and below bottom row - no other lines
- Remove redundant columns and rows
- Use labels rather than variable names
- More info and examples: [3], [4], [5]

## See also[edit | edit source]

- Advanced descriptive and graphing exercises