Esperanto/Lesson 7

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The theme of this lesson is family. The relevant vocabulary and the affixes that are useful to refer to family relationships will be covered.

Theme vocabulary[edit]

Preposition Audio Meaning
familio family
parenco relative
avo grandfather
nepo grandson
onklo uncle
nevo (male) nephew
kuzo (male) cousin
fianĉo fiancé
edzo 1 husband
orfo orphan
vidvo widower
  1. Note on pronunciation: edzo is pronounced "e-dzo" not "ed-zo", so with the "dz" in the same syllable.

Affixes[edit]

There are a number of prefixes that are used to refer to family relationships, bo-, ge-, pra-, vic-, and eks-.

bo-[edit]

The prefix "bo-" indicates a relationship by marriage, i.e. in-laws.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
bopatro father-in-law
boonklino aunt-in-law
bonepo grandson-in-law

ge-[edit]

The prefix "ge-" indicates both sexes together. It was originally used only in the plural, but is nowadays also used to indicate sex-neutral words where base words refer to males.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
gepatroj parents
gefratoj siblings
bogeavoj grandparents-in-law
gepatro parent
geonklo uncle or aunt

pra-[edit]

The prefix "pra-" indicates a more distant relationship than the base word.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
praavo great-grandfather
bopragenepo great-grandson-in-law
praonklino great-aunt

vic-[edit]

The prefix "vic-" indicates family members were born from a previous partner.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
vicfilino stepdaughter
vicavo stepgrandfather
vicbogefratoj stepsiblings-in-law

eks-[edit]

The prefix "eks-" indicates a former relationship or former quality, like the English ex-.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
eksbopatro ex-father-in-law
eksboonklino ex-aunt-in-law
eksprezidento ex-president

Vocabulary[edit]

Word Audio Meaning

Exercises[edit]


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