Esperanto/Lesson 6

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Prepositions[edit]

We have already encountered several prepositions, en, de, al, and kun. In this lesson we will learn several more and how to use them to derive new words.

Preposition Audio Meaning
antaŭ before (in time and place)
malantaŭ behind (only in place)
post after (only in time)
apud next to
ĉe at, near
ĉirkaŭ around
sur on (top of)
sub under
super above
ekster outside (location)
el outside (movement)
ĝis until (a time)
up to (a place)
inter between
tra through
kontraŭ against
trans on the other side of


Prepositions are usually used as in English. However, it is also common for prepositions to be used in derivations as those covered in lesson 4, with the preposition as the first element in the compound. Such compounds are especially common with verbs. Examples are:

Word Audio Meaning
eniri to go inside
eliri to go out(side)
deveni to originate
aldoni to add
ĉeesti to be present
kontraŭparoli to object, to speak against


The part-of-speech endings -o, -i, -a, and -e can also be added to prepositions to derive new words.

Word Audio Meaning Example Meaning Audio
ena internal enaj organoj internal organs
ene inside Faru tion ene! Do that inside!
ekstere outside Faru tion ekstere! Do that outside!
kontraŭi to oppose Ili kontraŭis la reformon. They opposed the reform.
kontraŭe on the contrary, contrarily Kontraŭe, mi ja povas fari tion. On the contrary, I can do it.

Affixes[edit]

-ejo[edit]

The suffix "-ejo" indicates a place for the base word.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
lernejo school (a place to learn)
preĝejo church (a place to pray)
hundejo kennel (a place for dogs)

-ujo[edit]

The suffix "-ujo" indicates a container for something.

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
inkujo inkpot
monujo wallet
hundujo doghouse
trinkujo something that holds drinks, e.g. a glass or a bottle

dis-[edit]

The prefix "dis-" indicates multiple directions:

Examples
Derived word Meaning Audio
dissendi broadcast (i.e. send out in many/all directions)
disiri scatter (i.e. go in many directions)
disdoni distribute (i.e. give in many directions)

Vocabulary[edit]

Word Audio Meaning
preĝi to pray
inko ink
mono money

Exercises[edit]


Let's play some more with the affixes from the previous lessons:

  • Go through the words in this lesson and tack on mal-, -ulo, and -ino. What do they mean? (answers)

Now, let's play with prepositions:

  • Go through the verbs in this and the previous lessons and tack on prepositions as much as makes sense. What do they mean? (answers)
  • Go through the other words in this and the previous lessons and tack on prepositions whenever it makes sense. What do they mean? (answers)

Now, let's play with the affixes from this lesson:

  • Go through the words from this and previous lessons and tack on -ejo, -ujo, and dis- wherever sensible. What do they mean? (answers)

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