Controversies in Science/Was there a mitochondrial Eve?/A critique of Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs.

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(Review Paper) Cited in Controversies in Science/Was there a mitochondrial Eve?/A critique of Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs.

Points Made[edit | edit source]

There is evidence to support the existence of mitochondrial eve because comparison of synonymous changes between African, Japanese, European, orangutan, chimpanzee and gorillas mitochondrial DNA points to shallow human ancestry, and specifically that modern humans originate from Africa.[1]

Modern Humans came from Africa and traveled to Eurasia essentially replacing Homo Erectus and the Neanderthals with gene exchange. Neanderthal mDNA is outside the variance seen in the Human DNA and thus it can be determined that the two groups separated 660,000 years ago, give or take 140,000 years.

Methods[edit | edit source]

Published in 1997 was an analysis of mtDNA extracted from Neanderthals. The first Neanderthal fossil was found in Neander Valley, Germany. Part of the fossil was then ground up to extract mtDNA for further comparison to modern human mtDNA. [2]

The upside to mtDNA is that it can be cleanly traced from the mother's genetics which go straight to the child unlike male genetics which can get twisted and confused. They took DNA samples from 3 different nationalities (Africans, Japanese and Europeans) and compared their DNA with those of Chimpanzees, Gorillas and Pygmies which are three main Africans apes. They compared the DNA differences[1]. [3]

Results[edit | edit source]

As you can see in the table above, the lowest number of synonymous changes was shown in the RNA genes between European-Japanese, European-African and African-Japanese. The minimal differences suggest that the last common ancestor for humans lived about 143,000 ± 18,000 years ago. The mtDNA compared that displayed the highest levels of synonymous differences between human and non-human were between European, African and Japanese, and Orangutan mtDNA. All data considered, the results support the theory of recent African origin or modern humans, because of a mitochondrial Eve. The results also suggest that human’s closest living relative is the chimpanzee[1].

If human's closest living relatives are chimpanzee's it not a stretch to think that if neanderthal's were living they would be an even close relative and therefore humans may indeed be older than 143,000 ± 18,000 years ago.Jhill171 (talk) 02:42, 28 March 2012 (UTC)

It is said that 99% of our DNA is linked to chimpanzees and orangutans therefore looking back in anthropology in evolution we encounter a phase where we were a direct link to of monkeys to humans, therefore like stated above a relative to human can be much older than what science can study. Because we are at the moment limited on the scientific curve of study to be able to find the answers to the questions we are asking. Computers and our research is still fairly limited to how we can apply it.Sambo1428 (talk)

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Horai, S., Hayasaka, K., Kondo, R., Tsugane, K., & Takahata, N. (1995). Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 532-536. Retrieved on March 22, 2011, from http://www.pnas.org/content/92/2/532.full.pdf
  2. Ancient DNA and Neanderthals. Retrieved from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/ancient-dna-and-neanderthals/neanderthal-mitochondrial-dna
  3. More about eve; geneticist torpedoes out-of-africa theory. (1992, Feb 29). The Gazette, pp. 8-K8/BREAK. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/432228253?accountid=1343