Cisco Networking/CCENT/Static Routing

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This lesson covers static routing.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for the routing portion of Cisco CCENT certification include:[1]

  • Describe basic routing concepts
    • Packet forwarding
    • Router lookup process
    • Process Switching/Fast Switching/CEF
  • Configure and verify operation status of an Ethernet interface
  • Verify router configuration and network connectivity using
    • ping
      • Extended ping
    • traceroute
    • telnet
    • SSH
    • Show cdp neighbors
  • Configure and verify routing configuration for a static or default route given specific routing requirements

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Wikipedia: Routing
  2. Wikipedia: Static routing
  3. Cisco: Routing Basics

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: Next Hop - CompTIA Network+ N10-005: 1.4
  2. YouTube: Routing Tables - CompTIA Network+ N10-005: 1.4
  3. YouTube: Configuring Routing Tables - CompTIA Network+ N10-005: 2.1
  4. Cisco: Introduction to IP Routing

Examples[edit | edit source]

Static Routing Configuration[edit | edit source]

show ip route[edit | edit source]

To display the current state of the routing table, use the show ip route command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.[2]

show ip route [ip-address]
show ip route

show arp[edit | edit source]

To display the entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, use the show arp command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.[3]

show arp

ip route[edit | edit source]

To establish static routes, use the ip route command in global configuration mode. To remove static routes, use the no form of this command.[4]

ip route prefix mask <ip-address | interface-type interface-number> [permanent]
ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2

trace / traceroute[edit | edit source]

To discover the routes that packets will actually take when traveling to their destination, use the trace / traceroute privileged EXEC command.[5]

trace <destination>
trace 8.8.8.8
traceroute 8.8.8.8

show cdp neighbors[edit | edit source]

To display detailed information about neighboring devices discovered using Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), use the show cdp neighbors privileged EXEC command.[6]

show cdp neighbors
show cdp neighbors detail

Command Sequence[edit | edit source]

A command sequence to configure static routing might be similar to the following. Routing must typically be configured on source, intermediate, and destination network routers for responses to be received.

enable
configure terminal

ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2
exit

show ip route
ping 192.168.3.1
trace 192.168.3.1

exit

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Complete the Cisco Basic IP Routing Concepts training tutorial.
  2. Observe and test connected routes.
    Cisco CCENT Routing 1.png
    1. Add one router and two VPCS PCs to a new GNS3 project.
    2. Add links to connect the following.
      • PC1 Ethernet0 <-> R1 FastEthernet0/0
      • PC2 Ethernet0 <-> R1 FastEthernet0/1
    3. Start the devices.
    4. Set the following IP addresses, subnet masks, and for the PCs, default gateways
      • R1 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
      • R1 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
      • PC1 Ethernet0: 192.168.1.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
      • PC2 Ethernet0: 192.168.2.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1
    5. Display the routing table using the following command.
      • show ip route
    6. Test the configuration using the following commands from the router and the PCs. Test all router and PC addresses. All tests should be successful.
      • ping
      • trace
  3. Configure and test static routes.
    Cisco CCENT Routing 2.png
    1. Add two routers and two VPCS PCs to a new GNS3 project.
    2. Add links to connect the following.
      • PC1 Ethernet0 <-> R1 FastEthernet0/0
      • R1 FastEthernet0/1 <-> R2 FastEthernet0/0
      • PC2 Ethernet0 <-> R2 FastEthernet0/1
    3. Start the devices.
    4. Set the following IP addresses, subnet masks, and for the PCs, default gateways
      • R1 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
      • R1 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
      • R2 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
      • R2 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
      • PC1 Ethernet0: 192.168.1.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
      • PC2 Ethernet0: 192.168.3.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1
    5. Display the routing tables using the following command.
      • show ip route
    6. Test the configuration using the following commands from the routers and the PCs. Test all router and PC addresses. Only the connected routes should be successful.
      • ping
      • trace
    7. Add static routes using the following commands.
      • R1: ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2
      • R2: ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1
    8. Display the routing tables using the following command.
      • show ip route
    9. Test the configuration using the following commands from the routers and the PCs. Test all router and PC addresses. All tests should be successful.
      • ping
      • trace
  4. Configure and test default routes.
    Cisco CCENT Routing 3.png
    1. Add three routers and two VPCS PCs to a new GNS3 project.
    2. Add links to connect the following.
      • PC1 Ethernet0 <-> R1 FastEthernet0/0
      • R1 FastEthernet0/1 <-> R2 FastEthernet0/0
      • R2 FastEthernet0/1 <-> R3 FastEthernet0/0
      • PC2 Ethernet0 <-> R3 FastEthernet0/1
    3. Start the devices.
    4. Set the following IP addresses, subnet masks, and for the PCs, default gateways
      • R1 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
      • R1 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
      • R2 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
      • R2 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
      • R3 FastEthernet0/0: 192.168.3.2 255.255.255.0
      • R3 FastEthernet0/1: 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
      • PC1 Ethernet0: 192.168.1.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
      • PC2 Ethernet0: 192.168.4.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1
    5. Display the routing tables using the following command.
      • show ip route
    6. Test the configuration using the following commands from the routers and the PCs. Test all router and PC addresses. Only the connected routes should be successful.
      • ping
      • trace
    7. Add static routes using the following commands.
      • R2: ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1
      • R2: ip route 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.2
    8. Add default routes using the following commands.
      • R1: ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.2
      • R3: ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.3.1
    9. Display the routing tables using the following command.
      • show ip route
    10. Test the configuration using the following commands from the routers and the PCs. Test all router and PC addresses. All tests should be successful.
      • ping
      • trace
  5. Verify router configuration and network connectivity.
    1. Use one or more of the router configurations from above and practice using the following commands.
      • show running-config
      • show cdp neighbors
      • show ip route
      • ping and extended ping
      • trace or traceroute
      • telnet
      • ssh

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

  • Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic.[7]
  • Static routing involves manual updating of routing tables with fixed paths to destination networks.[8]
  • Static routing uses include:[9]
    • Defining an exit point from a router when no other routes are available or necessary.
    • Small networks that require only one or two routes.
    • To provide a failsafe backup in the event that a dynamic route is unavailable.
    • To help transfer routing information from one routing protocol to another.
  • Static routing disadvantages include:[10]
    • Potential for human error
    • Lack of fault tolerance
    • Default prioritization over dynamic routing
    • Administrative overhead
  • To display the current state of the routing table, use the show ip route command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.[11]
  • To display the entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, use the show arp command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.[12]
  • To establish static routes, use the ip route command in global configuration mode. To remove static routes, use the no form of this command.[13]
  • To discover the routes that packets will actually take when traveling to their destination, use the trace / traceroute privileged EXEC command.[14]
  • To display detailed information about neighboring devices discovered using Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), use the show cdp neighbors privileged EXEC command.[15]

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

ARP table
A table of IP and hardware addresses resolved using the Address Resolution Protocol.[16]
Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF)
An advanced layer 3 switching technology used mainly in large core networks or the Internet to enhance the overall network performance.[17]
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Used by network devices to send error messages on an IP network.[18]
Layer 3 switch
A device capable of both routing and switching operations using dedicated application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) hardware.[19]
next-hop router
The next router in the path between source and destination.[20]
outgoing interface
The local network interface used to connect to a next-hop router.[21]
routing table
A data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes.[22]
static route
A manually-configured routing entry.[23]
summary route
A route containing the highest-order bits that match all addresses for a given collection of destination networks.[24]
traceroute
A computer network diagnostic tool for displaying the route (path) and measuring transit delays of packets across an Internet Protocol (IP) network.[25]

Review Questions[edit | edit source]

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Click on a question to see the answer.
  1. Routing is _____.
    Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic.
  2. Static routing involves _____.
    Static routing involves manual updating of routing tables with fixed paths to destination networks.
  3. Static routing uses include:
    Defining an exit point from a router when no other routes are available or necessary.

    Small networks that require only one or two routes.
    To provide a failsafe backup in the event that a dynamic route is unavailable.
    To help transfer routing information from one routing protocol to another.

  4. Static routing disadvantages include:
    Potential for human error

    Lack of fault tolerance
    Default prioritization over dynamic routing
    Administrative overhead

  5. To display the current state of the routing table, use the _____ command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
    To display the current state of the routing table, use the show ip route command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
  6. To display the entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, use the _____ command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
    To display the entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, use the show arp command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
  7. To establish static routes, use the _____ command in global configuration mode. To remove static routes, use the _____ form of this command.
    To establish static routes, use the ip route command in global configuration mode. To remove static routes, use the no form of this command.
  8. To discover the routes that packets will actually take when traveling to their destination, use the _____ privileged EXEC command.
    To discover the routes that packets will actually take when traveling to their destination, use the trace / traceroute privileged EXEC command.
  9. To display detailed information about neighboring devices discovered using Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), use the _____ privileged EXEC command.
    To display detailed information about neighboring devices discovered using Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), use the show cdp neighbors privileged EXEC command.

Assessments[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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