Bengali Language/Verbs

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Bengali verbs can be conjugated according to three tenses : Present, Past and Future

Within each tense, verbs can be conjugated differently according to their aspects : simple, progressive, perfect, habitual, near, distant, etc.

Verb conjugation in Present tense[edit]

First category of conjugation : Verbs ending in consonant+-aa[edit]

An example verb of this category is :

বলা
baw•laa
to speak

This is the dictionary form or the infinitive form of the verb.

At the end of this verb we have লা laa, which matches the pattern consonant + -aa

To conjugate this kind of verb in the present tense, you

1. remove the -aa in the end.

2. add the following endings depending on Person. (Who is doing the action matters).

3. Note that Number (Singular or Plural) of the Subject doesn't matter. (How many persons are doing the action has no influence on the verb ending.)

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
-i আমরা
aam•raa
We
-i
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
-o তোমরা
tom•raa
You
-o
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
-ish তোরা
to•ra
You
-ish
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
-en আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
-en
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
-e তারা
taa•raa
They
-e
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
-en তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
-en


বলা
bawlaa
to speak/say

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
বলি
bo•li
speak
আমরা
aam•raa
We
বলি
bo•li
speak
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
বল
baw•lo
speak
তোমরা
tom•raa
You
বল
baw•lo
speak
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
বলিস
bo•lish
speak
তোরা
to•ra
You
বলিস
bo•lish
speak
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
বলেন
baw•len
speak
আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
বলেন
baw•len
speak
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
She
He/She
বলে
baw•le
speaks
তারা
taa•raa
They
বলে
bawl'e
speak
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
বলেন
baw•len
speaks
তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
বলেন
baw•len
speak

progressive/continuous present[edit]

This tense describes a present action which is still going on at this moment and not finished.

perfect present[edit]

This tense describes an action which was completed in a near past.

habitual present[edit]

This tense describes an action which is a currently existing habit.

Verb conjugation in Past tense[edit]

Verbs in the past tense can differ according to aspects (whether the action was simply completed, whether the action was in the process of being completed, whether the action happened in the distant past, whether the action happened before another past action, whether the past action was habitual, etc.)

Simple past[edit]

Verb in simple past denotes a simple one-time completion of a past action

To conjugate a verb in the simple past tense:

1. from the infinitive form, remove the -aa in the end.

2. add the following endings depending on Person. (Who is doing the action matters).

3. Note that Number (Singular or Plural) of the Subject doesn't matter. (How many persons are doing the action has no influence on the verb ending.)

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
-lam আমরা
aam•raa
We
-lam
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
-le তোমরা
tom•raa
You
-le
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
-li তোরা
to•ra
You
-li
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
-len আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
-len
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
-lo তারা
taa•raa
They
-lo
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
-len তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
-len

Progressive/Incomplete past[edit]

To conjugate the verb in the progressive past tense, just add -chhi- before the simple past endings

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
-chhilam আমরা
aam•raa
We
-chhilam
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
-chhile তোমরা
tom•raa
You
-chhile
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
-chhili তোরা
to•ra
You
-chhili
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
-chhilen আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
-chhilen
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
-chhilo তারা
taa•raa
They
-chhilo
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
-chhilen তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
-chhilen

Distant past[edit]

To conjugate the verb in the distant past tense, just add -e- before the progressive past endings

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
-echhilam আমরা
aam•raa
We
-echhilam
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
-echhile তোমরা
tom•raa
You
-echhile
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
-echhili তোরা
to•ra
You
-echhili
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
-echhilen আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
-echhilen
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
-echhilo তারা
taa•raa
They
-echhilo
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
-echhilen তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
-echhilen

Perfect past[edit]

To conjugate the verb in the perfect past tense, you need to do the following :

1. create the appropriate perfect aspect stem. See Perfect Aspect

2. conjugate the perfect aspect stem in the distant past.


Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
perfect aspect stem + -echhilam আমরা
aam•raa
We
perfect aspect stem + -echhilam
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhile তোমরা
tom•raa
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhile
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhili তোরা
to•ra
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhili
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhilen আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
perfect aspect stem + -echhilen
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
perfect aspect stem + -echhilo তারা
taa•raa
They
perfect aspect stem + -echhilo
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
perfect aspect stem + -echhilen তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
perfect aspect stem + -echhilen

Habitual past[edit]

Verb in habitual past denotes a past habit, an action that used to happen periodically over and over again.

To conjugate a verb in the habitual past tense:

1. from the infinitive form, remove the -aa in the end.

2. add the following endings depending on Person. (Who is doing the action matters). It's almost the same as the simple past tense except that the -l- marker is replaced by the -t- marker.

3. Note that Number (Singular or Plural) of the Subject doesn't matter. (How many persons are doing the action has no influence on the verb ending.)

Singular Plural
1st Person আমি
aa•mi
I
-tam আমরা
aam•raa
We
-tam
2nd Person
(informal)
তুমি
tu•mi
You
-te তোমরা
tom•raa
You
-te
2nd Person
(familiar /
derogatory)
তুই
tui
You
-tish তোরা
to•ra
You
-tish
2nd Person
(formal)
আপনি
aap•ni
You
-ten আপনারা
aap•naa•raa
You
-ten
3rd Person
(informal)
সে
she
He/She
-to তারা
taa•raa
They
-to
3rd Person
(formal)
তিনি
ti•ni
He/She
-ten তাঁরা
taa(n)•raa
They
-ten

Verb conjugation in Future tense[edit]

Near future[edit]

Simple future[edit]

Progressive future[edit]

Perfect future[edit]