This learning resource is about Anthropocene as the Human Epoch and linking to human impacts on Climate Change and losses of ecosystem services including loss of biodiversity.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
As of August 2016[update], neither the International Commission on Stratigraphy nor the International Union of Geological Sciences has yet officially approved the term as a recognized subdivision of geological time, although the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), voted to proceed towards a formal golden spike (GSSP) proposal to define the Anthropocene epoch in the Geologic Time Scale and presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress on 29 August 2016.
Various different start dates for the Anthropocene have been proposed, ranging from the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution 12,000–15,000 years ago, to as recent as the Trinity test in 1945. As of February 2018[update], the ratification process continues and thus a date remains to be decided definitively, but the latter date has been more favored than others.
The most recent period of the Anthropocene has been referred to by several authors as the Great Acceleration during which the socioeconomic and earth system trends are increasing dramatically, especially after the Second World War. For instance, the Geological Society termed the year 1945 as The Great Acceleration.
In the learning task you should draw analogies between different approaches, concepts and frameworks. Finally you should be able to explain the analogies between those concepts and refer your lessons learnt to Systems Thinking.
- Explain the concept of Ecosystem Services and link the services to definition of an epoche as Anthropocens.
- In the Antropocene mankind is facing Global Challenges. Problem solving in Complex Dynamic Systems need collaborative activities of many disciplines.
- (Select Sustainable Development Goals) Start with a single selected Sustainable Development Goals,
- (Select Challenge/Problem for SDG) Select a problem for your sustainable development goal (e.g. Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy or growth explain how mankind caused problems or challenges in one topic of you choice refering to the your selcted sustainable development goal.
- (Part of Problem) explain how mankind caused problems or challenges in one topic of you choice refering to the your selcted sustainable development goal.
- (Part of Solutions) explain how collaborative and interdisciplinar work can support mitigating risk, increase benefits.
- (Learner2Author) If you create a case study according to your learning tasks above, this learning resource encourages you to share your results as a case-study that others can collaborative work on with you. You might want to consider to login that others in the wikiversity community can thank you in the wikiversity history of the document and could support you for further developement.
An early concept for the Anthropocene was the Noosphere by Vladimir Vernadsky, who in 1938 wrote of "scientific thought as a geological force." Scientists in the Soviet Union appear to have used the term "anthropocene" as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological period.Template:Full citation needed Ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer subsequently used "anthropocene" with a different sense in the 1980s and the term was widely popularized in 2000 by atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen, who regards the influence of human behavior on Earth's atmosphere in recent centuries as so significant as to constitute a new geological epoch.
In 2008, the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London considered a proposal to make the Anthropocene a formal unit of geological epoch divisions. A majority of the commission decided the proposal had merit and should be examined further. Independent working groups of scientists from various geological societies have begun to determine whether the Anthropocene will be formally accepted into the Geological Time Scale.
The term "anthropocene" is informally used in scientific contexts. The Geological Society of America entitled its 2011 annual meeting: Archean to Anthropocene: The past is the key to the future. The new epoch has no agreed start-date, but one proposal, based on atmospheric evidence, is to fix the start with the Industrial Revolution ca. 1780, with the invention of the steam engine. Other scientists link the new term to earlier events, such as the rise of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution (around 12,000 years BP). Evidence of relative human impact – such as the growing human influence on land use, ecosystems, biodiversity, and species extinction – is substantial; scientists think that human impact has significantly changed (or halted) the growth of biodiversity. Those arguing for earlier dates posit that the proposed Anthropocene may have begun as early as 14,000 to 15,000 years before present, based on geologic evidence; this has led other scientists to suggest that "the onset of the Anthropocene should be extended back many thousand years";:1 this would be closely synchronous with the current term, Holocene.
In January 2015, 26 of the 38 members of the International Anthropocene Working Group published a paper suggesting the Trinity test on 16 July 1945 as the starting point of the proposed new epoch. However, a significant minority supports one of several alternative dates. A March 2015 report suggested either 1610 or 1964 as the beginning of Anthropocene. Other scholars point to the diachronous character of the physical strata of the Anthropocene, arguing that onset and impact are spread out over time, not reducible to a single instant or date of start.
A January 2016 report on the climatic, biological, and geochemical signatures of human activity in sediments and ice cores suggested the era since the mid-20th century should be recognised as a distinct geological epoch from the Holocene.
The Anthropocene Working Group met in Oslo in April 2016 to consolidate evidence supporting the argument for the Anthropocene as a true geologic epoch. Evidence was evaluated and the group voted to recommend "Anthropocene" as the new geological age in August 2016. Should the International Commission on Stratigraphy approve the recommendation, the proposal to adopt the term will have to be ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences before its formal adoption as part of the geologic time scale.
Although the biologist Eugene Stoermer is often credited with coining the term "anthropocene", it was in informal use in the mid-1970s. Paul Crutzen is credited with independently re-inventing and popularizing it. Stoermer wrote, "I began using the term 'anthropocene' in the 1980's, but never formalized it until Paul contacted me." Crutzen has explained, "I was at a conference where someone said something about the Holocene. I suddenly thought this was wrong. The world has changed too much. So I said: 'No, we are in the Anthropocene.' I just made up the word on the spur of the moment. Everyone was shocked. But it seems to have stuck.":21 In 2008, Zalasiewicz suggested in GSA Today that an anthropocene epoch is now appropriate.
Nature of human effects
Homogenocene (from old Greek: homo-, same geno-, kind, kainos-, new and -cene, period) is a more specific term used to define our current geological epoch, in which biodiversity is diminishing and biogeography and ecosystems around the globe seem more and more similar to one another mainly due to invasive species that have been introduced around the globe either on purpose (crops, livestock) or inadvertently.
The term Homogenocene was first used by Michael Samways in his editorial article in the Journal of Insect Conservation from 1999 titled "Translocating fauna to foreign lands: here comes the Homogenocene."
The term was used again by John L. Curnutt in the year 2000 in Ecology, in a short list titled "A Guide to the Homogenocene", which reviewed Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems by George Cox. Charles C. Mann, in his acclaimed book 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, gives a bird's eye view of the mechanisms and ongoing implications of the homogenocene.
The human impact on biodiversity forms one of the primary attributes of the Anthropocene. Humankind has entered what is sometimes called the Earth's sixth major extinction. Most experts agree that human activities have accelerated the rate of species extinction. The exact rate remains controversial – perhaps 100 to 1000 times the normal background rate of extinction. A 2010 study found that "marine phytoplankton – the vast range of tiny algae species accounting for roughly half of Earth's total photosynthetic biomass – had declined substantially in the world's oceans over the past century. From 1950 alone, algal biomass decreased by around 40%, probably in response to ocean warming – and that the decline had gathered pace in recent years."Template:Qn Some authors have postulated that without human impacts the biodiversity of the planet would continue to grow at an exponential rate.
Increases in global rates of extinction have been elevated above background rates since at least 1500, and appear to have accelerated in the 19th century and further since. A New York Times op-ed on 13 July 2012 by ecologist Roger Bradbury predicted the end of biodiversity for the oceans, labelling coral reefs doomed: "Coral reefs will be the first, but certainly not the last, major ecosystem to succumb to the Anthropocene." This op-ed quickly generated much discussion among conservationists; The Nature Conservancy rebutted Bradbury on its website, defending its position of protecting coral reefs despite continued human impacts causing reef declines.
In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails led to the conclusion that "the biodiversity crisis is real", and that 7% of all species on Earth may have disappeared already. Human predation was noted as being unique in the history of life on Earth as being a globally distributed 'superpredator', with predation of the adults of other apex predators and with widespread impacts on food webs worldwide. A study published in May 2017 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences posited that a "biological annihilation" akin to a sixth mass extinction event is underway as a result of anthropogenic causes, such as human overpopulation, continued population growth and overconsumption, particularly by the wealthy. The study suggested that as much as 50% of the number of animal individuals that once lived on Earth were already extinct, threatening the basis for human existence too. A different study published in PNAS in May 2018 says that since the dawn of human civilization, 83% of wild mammals have disappeared. Today livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%).
Permanent changes in the distribution of organisms from human influence will become identifiable in the geologic record. Researchers have documented the movement of many species into regions formerly too cold for them, often at rates faster than initially expected. This has occurred in part as a result of changing climate, but also in response to farming and fishing, and to the accidental introduction of non-native species to new areas through global travel. The ecosystem of the entire Black Sea may have changed during the last 2000 years as a result of nutrient and silica input from eroding deforested lands along the Danube River.
One geological symptom resulting from human activity is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) content. During the glacial–interglacial cycles of the past million years, natural processes have varied CO2 by approximately 100 ppm (from 180 ppm to 280 ppm). As of 2013[update], anthropogenic net emissions of CO2 increased atmospheric concentration by a comparable amount from 280 ppm (Holocene or pre-industrial "equilibrium") to approximately 400 ppm, with 2015–16 monthly monitoring data of CO2 displaying a rising trend above 400 ppm. This signal in the Earth's climate system is especially significant because it is occurring much faster, and to a greater extent, than previous, similar changes. Most of this increase is due to the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, although smaller fractions are the result of cement production and land-use changes (e.g. deforestation).
Changes in drainage patterns traceable to human activity will persist over geologic time in large parts of the continents where the geologic regime is erosional. This includes the paths of roads and highways defined by their grading and drainage control. Direct changes to the form of the Earth's surface by human activities (e.g., quarrying, landscaping) also record human impacts.
It has been suggested the deposition of calthemite formations are one example of a natural process which has not previously occurred prior to the human modification of the Earth's surface, and therefore represents a unique process of the Anthropocene. Calthemite is a secondary deposit, derived from concrete, lime, mortar or other calcareous material outside the cave environment. Calthemites grow on or under, man-made structures (including mines and tunnels) and mimic the shapes and forms of cave speleothems, such as stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone etc.
Human activities like deforestation and road construction are believed to have elevated average total sediment fluxes across the Earth's surface. However, construction of dams on many rivers around the world means the rates of sediment deposition in any given place do not always appear to increase in the Anthropocene. For instance, many river deltas around the world are actually currently starved of sediment by such dams, and are subsiding and failing to keep up with sea level rise, rather than growing.
Increases in erosion due to farming and other operations will be reflected by changes in sediment composition and increases in deposition rates elsewhere. In land areas with a depositional regime, engineered structures will tend to be buried and preserved, along with litter and debris. Litter and debris thrown from boats or carried by rivers and creeks will accumulate in the marine environment, particularly in coastal areas. Such manmade artifacts preserved in stratigraphy are known as "technofossils."
Changes in biodiversity will also be reflected in the fossil record, as will species introductions. An example cited is the domestic chicken, originally the red junglefowl Gallus gallus, native to south-east Asia but has since become the world's most common bird through human breeding and consumption, with over 60 billion consumed a year and whose bones would become fossilized in landfill sites.
In terms of trace elements, there are distinct signatures left by modern societies. For example, in the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming, there is a layer of chlorine present in ice cores from 1960's atomic weapon testing programs, as well as a layer of mercury associated with coal plants in the 1980s. From 1945 to 1951, nuclear fallout is found locally around atomic device test sites, whereas from 1952 to 1980, tests of thermonuclear devices have left a clear, global signal of excess 14
, and other artificial radionuclides. The highest global concentration of radionuclides was in 1965, one of the dates which has been proposed as a possible benchmark for the start of the formally defined Anthropocene.
Human burning of fossil fuels has also left distinctly elevated concentrations of black carbon, inorganic ash, and spherical carbonaceous particles in recent sediments across the world. Concentrations of these components increases markedly and almost simultaneously around the world beginning around 1950.
The Anthropocene Working Group voted on the "Base/beginning of the Anthropocene", and most members favored some time around 1950. This time period has also been referred to as the Great Acceleration.
"Early anthropocene" model
While much of the environmental change occurring on Earth is suspected to be a direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution, William Ruddiman has argued that the proposed Anthropocene began approximately 8,000 years ago with the development of farming and sedentary cultures. At this point, humans were dispersed across all of the continents (except Antarctica), and the Neolithic Revolution was ongoing. During this period, humans developed agriculture and animal husbandry to supplement or replace hunter-gatherer subsistence. Such innovations were followed by a wave of extinctions, beginning with large mammals and land birds. This wave was driven by both the direct activity of humans (e.g. hunting) and the indirect consequences of land-use change for agriculture.
From the past to present, some authors consider the Anthropocene and the Holocene to be the same or coeval geologic time span, others that the onset of the Anthropocene was just a bit more recent. Ruddiman claims that the Anthropocene, as defined by significant human impact on greenhouse gas emissions, began not in the industrial era, but 8,000 years ago, as ancient farmers cleared forests to grow crops. Ruddiman's work has, in turn, been challenged on the grounds that comparison with an earlier interglaciation ("Stage 11", approximately 400,000 years ago) suggests that 16,000 more years must elapse before the current Holocene interglaciation comes to an end, and that thus the early anthropogenic hypothesis is invalid. Ruddiman argues in rebuttal that this results from an invalid alignment of recent insolation maxima with insolation minima from the past, among other irregularities, which invalidate the criticism. Furthermore, the argument that "something" is needed to explain the differences in the Holocene is challenged by more recent research showing that all interglacials differ.
Although 8,000 years ago the planet sustained a few million people and was still fundamentally pristine, this is the basis for an assertion that an early date for the proposed Anthropocene term does account for a substantial human footprint on Earth.
At this time, the Roman Empire encompassed large portions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. In China the classical dynasties were flowering. The Middle kingdoms of India had already the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. The Napata/Meroitic kingdom extended over the current Sudan and Ethiopia. The Olmecs controlled central Mexico and Guatemala, and the pre-Incan Chavín people managed areas of northern Peru. Although often apart from each other and intermixed with buffering ecosystems, the areas directly impacted by these civilizations and others were large. Additionally, some activities, such as mining, implied much more widespread perturbation of natural conditions. Over the last 11,500 years or so humans have spread around Earth, increased in number, and profoundly altered the material world. They have taken advantage of global environmental conditions not of their own making.The end of the last glacial period – when as much as 30% of Earth's surface was ice-bound – led to a warmer world with more water (H2O). Although humans existed in the previous Pleistocene epoch, it is only in the recent Holocene period that they have flourished. Today there are more humans alive than at any previous point in Earth's history.
Crutzen proposed the Industrial Revolution as the start of Anthropocene. Lovelock proposes that the Anthropocene began with the first application of the Newcomen atmospheric engine in 1712. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change takes the pre-industrial era (chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline related to changes in long-lived, well mixed greenhouse gases. Although it is apparent that the Industrial Revolution ushered in an unprecedented global human impact on the planet, much of Earth's landscape already had been profoundly modified by human activities. The human impact on Earth has grown progressively, with few substantial slowdowns.
A marker that accounts for a substantial global impact of humans on the total environment, comparable in scale to those associated with significant perturbations of the geological past, is needed in place of minor changes in atmosphere composition.
A useful candidate for this purpose is the pedosphere, which can retain information of its climatic and geochemical history with features lasting for centuries or millennia. Human activity is now firmly established as the sixth factor of soil formation. It affects pedogenesis either directly, by, for example, land levelling, trenching and embankment building for various purposes, organic matter enrichment from additions of manure or other waste, organic matter impoverishment due to continued cultivation, compaction from overgrazing or, indirectly, by drift of eroded materials or pollutants. Anthropogenic soils are those markedly affected by human activities, such as repeated ploughing, the addition of fertilizers, contamination, sealing, or enrichment with artefacts (in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources they are classified as Anthrosols and Technosols). They are recalcitrant repositories of artefacts and properties that testify to the dominance of the human impact, and hence appear to be reliable markers for the Anthropocene. Some anthropogenic soils may be viewed as the 'golden spikes' of geologists (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point), which are locations where there are strata successions with clear evidences of a worldwide event, including the appearance of distinctive fossils. Drilling for fossil fuels has also created holes and tubes which are expected to be detectable for millions of years.
The concept of the Anthropocene has also been approached via humanities such as philosophy, literature and art. In the scholarly world, it has been the subject of increasing attention through special journal issues, conferences, and disciplinary reports. The Anthropocene, its attendant timescale, and ecological implications prompts questions about death and the ends of civilization, memory and archives, the scope and methods of humanistic inquiry, and emotional responses to the "end of nature." It has been also criticized as an ideological construct. Some environmentalists on the political left suggest that "Capitalocene" is a more historically appropriate term. At the same time, others suggest that the Anthropocene is overly focused on the human species, while ignoring systematic inequalities, such as imperialism and racism, that have also shaped the world.
There are several philosophical approaches on how to handle the future of Anthropocene: Business-as-usual, mitigation, geo-engineering options.
- Anthropogenic biomes
- Climate engineering
- Control of fire by early humans
- Great Transition
- Holocene extinction
- Human overpopulation
- International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
- Novel ecosystem
- Planetary boundaries
- Plastic pollution
- w:en:Power Down: Options and Actions for a Post-Carbon World
- The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (2014 book)
- World Scientists' Warning to Humanity
- Borenstein, Seth (14 October 2014). "With their mark on Earth, humans may name era, too". Associated Press. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Waters CN (8 January 2016). "The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene". Science 351 (6269): aad2622. doi:10.1126/science.aad2622. PMID 26744408. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6269/aad2622.long.
- Edwards, Lucy E. (30 November 2015). "What is the Anthropocene?". Eos. 96. doi:10.1029/2015EO040297.
- Castree, Noel (2015). "The Anthropocene: a primer for geographers.". Geography 100 part 2: 66. https://2017.moodle.maynoothuniversity.ie/pluginfile.php/487483/mod_resource/content/1/Castree%20The%20Anthropocene.pdf.
- Ellis, Erle (2018). Anthropocene: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198792987.
- "Subcomission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, ICS » Working Groups". quaternary.stratigraphy.org. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- George Dvorsky. "New Evidence Suggests Human Beings Are a Geological Force of Nature". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Carrington, Damian (29 August 2016). "The Anthropocene epoch: scientists declare dawn of human-influenced age". The Guardian. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
- "The Anthropocene". The Geological Society.
- "'The Anthropocene' viewed from Vernadsky's Noosphere". Larouche Pac. 29 February 2016.
- Akademii͡a nauk SSSR. "Doklady: Biological sciences sections, Volumes 132-135". Missing or empty
- Revkin, Andrew C. (11 May 2011). "Confronting the 'Anthropocene'". New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Dawson, Ashley (2016). Extinction: A Radical History. OR Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-1944869014.
- Zalasiewicz, Jan (2008). "Are we now living in the Anthropocene?". GSA Today 18 (2): 4–8. doi:10.1130/GSAT01802A.1. http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/18/2/pdf/i1052-5173-18-2-4.pdf.
- Zalasiewicz, J. (2010). "The New World of the Anthropocene". Environmental Science & Technology 44 (7): 2228–2231. doi:10.1021/es903118j. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903118j.
- Ehlers, Eckart; Moss, C.; Krafft, Thomas (2006). Earth System Science in the Anthropocene: Emerging Issues and Problems. Springer Science+Business Media.
- "2011 GSA Annual Meeting". geosociety.org. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Crutzen, P. J.; E. F. Stoermer (2000). "The 'Anthropocene'". Global Change Newsletter 41: 17–18.
- Sahney, S.; Benton, M. J.; Ferry, P. A. (2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land" (PDF). Biology Letters 6 (4): 544–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024. PMID 20106856. PMC 2936204. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/4/544.full.pdf+html. "... it could be that without human influence the ecological and taxonomic diversity of tetrapods would continue to increase in an exponential fashion until most or all of the available ecospace is filled."
- Pimm, S. L.; Jenkins, C. N.; Abell, R.; Brooks, T. M.; Gittleman, J. L.; Joppa, L. N.; Raven, P. H.; Roberts, C. M. et al. (2014). "The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection". Science 344 (6187): 1246752. doi:10.1126/science.1246752. PMID 24876501. http://static.squarespace.com/static/51b078a6e4b0e8d244dd9620/t/538797c3e4b07a163543ea0f/1401395139381/Pimm+et+al.+2014.pdf. "The overarching driver of species extinction is human population growth and increasing per capita consumption." invalid parameters
- Vignieri, Sacha (2014). "Vanishing fauna". Science 345 (6195): 392–395. doi:10.1126/science.345.6195.392.
- Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M. (2015). "Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction". Science Advances 1 (5): e1400253. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1400253.
- Payne, Jonathan L.; Bush, Andrew M.; Heim, Noel A.; Knope, Matthew L.; McCauley, Douglas J. (2016). "Ecological selectivity of the emerging mass extinction in the oceans". Science 353 (6305): 1284–1286. doi:10.1126/science.aaf2416.
- Doughty, C. E.; Wolf, A.; Field, C. B. (2010). "Biophysical feedbacks between the Pleistocene megafauna extinction and climate: The first human-induced global warming?". Geophysical Research Letters 37 (L15703): 1–5. doi:10.1029/2010GL043985. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2010/2010GL043985.shtml.
- "Was first nuclear test the start of new human-dominated epoch, the Anthropocene?" University of California, Berkeley News Centre, 16 January 2015
- Lewis, Simon L.; Maslin, Mark A. (March 2015). "Defining the Anthropocene". Nature 519: 171–180. doi:10.1038/nature14258. Archived from the original on 2015-12-24. https://web.archive.org/web/20151224052554/http://www.realtechsupport.org/UB/MCC/Lewis_DefiningAnthropocene_2015.pdf.
- Edgeworth, Matt; Richter, Dan deB; Waters, Colin; Haff, Peter; Neal, Cath; Price, Simon James (1 April 2015). "Diachronous beginnings of the Anthropocene: The lower bounding surface of anthropogenic deposits". The Anthropocene Review 2 (1): 33–58. doi:10.1177/2053019614565394. ISSN 2053-0196. http://anr.sagepub.com/content/2/1/33.
- Waters, Colin N.; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Summerhayes, Colin; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Poirier, Clément; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Cearreta, Alejandro; Edgeworth, Matt et al. (8 January 2016). "The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene". Science 351 (6269): aad2622. doi:10.1126/science.aad2622. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 26744408. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6269/aad2622.
- "Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy – Working Group on the 'Anthropocene'". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Template:LSJ, Template:LSJ.
- Crutzen, P. J. (2002). "Geology of mankind". Nature 415 (6867): 23. doi:10.1038/415023a. PMID 11780095. http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038%2F415023a.
- Steffen, Will; Grinevald, Jacques; Crutzen, Paul; McNeill, John (2011). "The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspectives". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369: 843. ftp://ftp.iluci.org/Evan/GEOG415/Reading_Assignments/Anthropocene.pdf. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Pearce, Fred (2007). With Speed and Violence: Why Scientists fear tipping points in Climate Change (PDF). Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-8576-9. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- Michael, Samways (1999). Translocating fauna to foreign lands: here comes the Homogenocene. doi:10.1023/A:1017267807870. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g2wwg0gr8m743852/fulltext.pdf.
- Curnutt, John L. (2000). "Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems". doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[1756:AGTTH]2.0.CO;2.
- McNeill, J. R. (2012). "Global Environmental History: The First 150,000 Years". In McNeill, J. R.; Mauldin, E.S. (editors) (eds.). A Companion to Global Environmental History. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 3–17. ISBN 978-1-444-33534-7.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Leakey, Richard; Lewin, Roger (1995). The sixth extinction: patterns of life and the future of humankind. London: Doubleday.
- Alan Boyle. "Scientists Build Case for 'Sixth Extinction' ... and Say It Could Kill Us". NBC News. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Anthropocene: Have humans created a new geological age?". BBC News. 10 May 2011.
- "Ocean greenery under warming stress". nature.com. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Bradbury, Roger (13 July 2012). "A World Without Coral Reefs". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Wear, Stephanie (20 July 2012). "Coral Reefs: The Living Dead, Or A Comeback Kid?". nature.org. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Research shows catastrophic invertebrate extinction in Hawai'i and globally". Phys.org. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine (5 May 2015). "Mass extinction in poorly known taxa". PNAS 112: 7761–7766. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502350112. PMC 4485135. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485135/.
- Darimont, Chris T.; Fox, Caroline H.; Bryan, Heather M.; Reimchen, Thomas E. (21 August 2015). "The unique ecology of human predators". Science 349 (6250): 858–860. doi:10.1126/science.aac4249. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 26293961. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/858.
- Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo (23 May 2017). "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS 114 (30): E6089–E6096. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704949114. PMC 5544311. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/07/05/1704949114.full. "Much less frequently mentioned are, however, the ultimate drivers of those immediate causes of biotic destruction, namely, human overpopulation and continued population growth, and overconsumption, especially by the rich. These drivers, all of which trace to the fiction that perpetual growth can occur on a finite planet, are themselves increasing rapidly."
- Sutter, John D. (11 July 2017). "Sixth mass extinction: The era of 'biological annihilation'". CNN. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Carrington, Damian (May 21, 2018). "Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Harvey, Fiona; Correspondent, Environment (18 August 2011). "Climate change driving species out of habitats much faster than expected". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- Nuwer, Rachel (14 September 2012). "From Ancient Deforestation, a Delta Is Born". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- ESRL Web Team. "ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network". noaa.gov. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "NASA Global Climate Change - Vital Signs of the Planet - Facts - Carbon Dioxide". 7 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Deep ice tells long climate story". BBC News. 4 September 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Dixon, Simon J; Viles, Heather A; Garrett, Bradley L (21 June 2017). "Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform" (in en). Area: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/area.12358. ISSN 1475-4762. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/area.12358/abstract.
- Smith, G. K. (April 2016). "Calcite straw stalactites growing from concrete structures". Cave and Karst Science 43 (1): 4–10. http://bcra.org.uk/pub/candks/index.html?j=127. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- Giosan, L.; Syvitski, J. P. M.; Constantinescu, S.; Day, J. (3 December 2014). "Climate change: Protect the world's deltas". Nature. 516. pp. 31–33. Bibcode:2014Natur.516...31G. doi:10.1038/516031a.
- Cabadas-Báez, H.V.; Sedov, S.; Jiménez-Álvarez, S; Leonard, D; Lailson-Tinoco, B.; García-Moll, R.; Ancona-Aragón, I.; Hernández, L. (2017). "Soils as a source of raw materials for ancient ceramic production in the Maya region of Mexico: Micromorphological insight". Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 70 (1): 21–48. doi:10.18268/BSGM2018v70n1a2. http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/vols/epoca04/7001/%282%29Cabadas.pdf.
- Carrington, Damian (31 August 2016). "How the domestic chicken rose to define the Anthropocene". The Guardian.
- "Global peak in atmospheric radiocarbon provides a potential definition for the onset of the Anthropocene Epoch in 1965". Scientific Reports. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Media note: Anthropocene Working Group (AWG)". University of Leicester. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Smith, B. D.; Zeder, M.A. (2013). "The onset of the Anthropocene". Anthropocene 4: 8–13. doi:10.1016/j.ancene.2013.05.001.
- Certini, G.; Scalenghe, R. (2014). "Is the Anthropocene really worthy of a formal geologic definition?". The Anthropocene Review 2: 77–80. doi:10.1177/2053019614563840.
- Ruddiman, WF. (2013). "The Anthropocene". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41: 45–68. doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-050212-123944.
- Mason, Betsy (2003). "Man has been changing climate for 8,000 years". Nature. doi:10.1038/news031208-7.
- Adler, Robert (11 December 2003). "Early farmers warmed Earth's climate". New Scientist. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- Ruddiman, William F. (2003). "The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climatic Change 61 (3): 261–293. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140416132256/http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~avf5/teaching/Files_pdf/Ruddiman2003.pdf.
- "Interglacial diversity". Nature Geoscience 2: 751–755. doi:10.1038/ngeo660. http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v2/n11/abs/ngeo660.html. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Boyle, J. F.; Gaillard, M.-J.; Kaplan, J. O.; Dearing, J. A. (2011). "Modelling prehistoric land use and carbon budgets: A critical review". The Holocene 21: 715–722. doi:10.1177/0959683610386984.
- Certini, G.; Scalenghe, R. (2015). "Holocene as Anthropocene". Science 349: 246. doi:10.1126/science.349.6245.246-a.
- Certini, G.; Scalenghe, R. (2011). "Anthropogenic soils are the golden spikes for the Anthropocene". The Holocene 21 (8): 1269–1274. doi:10.1177/0959683611408454.
- "Andean and Chavín civilizations". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
- Hong, S.; Candelone, J-P.; Patterson, C. C.; Boutron C. F. (1994). "Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations". Science 265 (5180): 1841–1843. doi:10.1126/science.265.5180.1841. PMID 17797222.
- Castree, Noel (2015). "The anthropocene: a primer for geographers". geography 100: 66. https://2017.moodle.maynoothuniversity.ie/pluginfile.php/487483/mod_resource/content/1/Castree%20The%20Anthropocene.pdf.
- Laboratory, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, Earth System Research. "NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division - THE NOAA ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS INDEX (AGGI)". www.esrl.noaa.gov. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Douglas, I.; Hodgson, R.; Lawson, N. (2002). "Industry, environment and health through 200 years in Manchester". Ecological Economics 41 (2): 235–255. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00029-0.
- Kirch, P. V. (2005). "The Holocene record". Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30 (1): 409–440. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.29.102403.140700.
- Zalasiewicz, J.; Williams, M.; Steffen, W.; Crutzen, P. J. (2010). "Response to 'The Anthropocene forces us to reconsider adaptationist models of human-environment interactions'". Environmental Science & Technology 44 (16): 6008. doi:10.1021/es102062w.
- Zalasiewicz, J. (2011). "Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 369 (1938): 1036–1055. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0315.
- Richter, D. deB. (2007). "Humanity's transformation of Earth's soil: pedology's new frontier". Soil Science 172 (12): 957–967. doi:10.1097/ss.0b013e3181586bb7.
- Amundson, R.; Jenny, H. (1991). "The place of humans in the state factor theory of ecosystems and their soils". Soil Science 151 (1): 99–109. doi:10.1097/00010694-199101000-00012.
- "The Advent of the Anthropocene: Was That the Big Story of the 20th Century?". worldofideas. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Timothy Clark, ed (1 December 2012). "Special Issue: Deconstruction in the Anthropocene". Oxford Literary Review 34 (2): v–vi. doi:10.3366/olr.2012.0039. http://www.euppublishing.com/doi/abs/10.3366/olr.2012.0039. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University (13 June 2012). Anthropocene Humanities: The 2012 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of Humanities Centers and Institutes. Canberra, Australia. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014. Unknown parameter
- Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society at LMU-Munich; Alexander von Humboldt Transatlantic Network in the Environmental Humanities (14 June 2013). Culture and the Anthropocene. Munich, Germany. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Wenzel, Jennifer (13 March 2014). "Climate Change". State of the Discipline Report: Ideas of the Decade. American Comparative Literature Association. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Scranton, Roy (10 November 2013). "Learning How to Die in the Anthropocene". New York Times: Opinionator. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Colebrook, Claire (27 January 2014). "The Anthropocene and the Archive". The Memory Network: Exchanges. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Nowviskie, Bethany (10 July 2014). "digital humanities in the anthropocene". nowviskie.org. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Ronda, Margaret (10 June 2013). "Mourning and Melancholia in the Anthropocene". Post45. http://post45.research.yale.edu/2013/06/mourning-and-melancholia-in-the-anthropocene/. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Malm, Andreas (March 2015). "The Anthropocene Myth". Jacobin.
- Moore, Jason W., ed. (2016). Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. Oakland: PM Press. ISBN 1629631485.
- Davies, Jeremy (2016). The Birth of the Anthropocene. Oakland, California: University of California Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780520289970.
- Anderson, Ross (30 November 2015). "Nature Has Lost Its Meaning". The Atlantic.
- Crutzen, Steffen (Winter 2017). "The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature". Ambio Vol. 36, No. 8: 619.
- Davies, Jeremy (2016). The Birth of the Anthropocene. Oakland, CA, USA: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520289970.
- Dirzo, Rodolfo; Hillary S. Young; Mauro Galetti; Gerardo Ceballos; Nick J. B. Isaac; Ben Collen (2014). "Defaunation in the Anthropocene". Science 345 (6195): 401–406. doi:10.1126/science.1251817. http://www.uv.mx/personal/tcarmona/files/2010/08/Science-2014-Dirzo-401-6-2.pdf.
- Dixon, Simon J; Viles, Heather A; Garrett, Bradley L. "Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform" (in en). Area: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/area.12358. ISSN 1475-4762. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/area.12358/abstract.
- Ellis, Erle (2018). Anthropocene: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198792987.
- Ellis, Erle C.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Lutters, Wayne G. (2013). "Dating the Anthropocene: Towards an empirical global history of human transformation of the terrestrial biosphere". Elementa 1: 000018. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000018. http://elementascience.org/article/info:doi/10.12952/journal.elementa.000018.
- Grinspoon, David (December 2016). "Welcome to Terra Sapiens". Aeon. https://aeon.co/essays/enter-the-sapiezoic-a-new-aeon-of-self-aware-global-change.
- Hamilton, Clive (2017). Defiant Earth: The Fate of Humans in the Anthropocene. Polity. ISBN 978-1509519750.
- Ialenti, Vincent. 2016. "Generation (Lexicon for An Anthropocene Yet Unseen)". Cultural Anthropology: Theorizing the Contemporary.
- Kim, Rakhyun E.; Klaus Bosselmann (2013). "International Environmental Law in the Anthropocene: Towards a Purposive System of Multilateral Environmental Agreements". Transnational Environmental Law 2: 285–309. doi:10.1017/S2047102513000149. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8943677&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S2047102513000149.
- Purdy, Jedediah. (2015). "Anthropocene Fever". Aeon. p.1-9.
- "World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice". BioScience. 2017. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix125. https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/doi/10.1093/biosci/bix125/4605229.
- Ruddiman, William F. (December 2003). "The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climatic Change 61 (3): 261–293. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h328n0425378u736/.
- Ruddiman, William F.; Stephen J. Vavrus; John E. Kutzbach (2005). "A test of the overdue-glaciation hypothesis" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 11. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.010. Archived from the original on 2006-10-03. https://web.archive.org/web/20061003050034/http://www.pik-potsdam.de/~claussen/papers/ruddiman%2Bal_qsr_05.pdf.
- Ruddiman, William F. (2005). Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12164-8.
- Schmidt, G. A.; D. T. Shindel; S. Harder (2004). "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation". Geophysical Research Letters 31 (23): L23206. doi:10.1029/2004GL021083.
- Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew. "Some Islands Will Rise: Singapore in the Anthropocene". Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities 4.2 (2017): 166-184.
- Steffen, Will; Crutzen, Paul; McNeill, John (2007). "The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?". AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36 (8): 614-621. doi:10.1579/0044-7447.
- Steffen, Will et al. (August 9, 2018). "Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene". PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1810141115.
- Visconti, Guido (2014). "Anthropocene: another academic invention?". Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei 25 (3): 381–392. doi:10.1007/s12210-014-0317-x. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12210-014-0317-x.pdf.
- "Human-Driven Planet: Time to Make It Official?". Science Now. January 2008. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2008/01/human-driven-planet-time-make-it-official.
- Klinkenborg, Verlyn (December 2016). What’s Happening to the Bees and Butterflies? New York Review of Books
- Vanishing: The Sixth Mass Extinction, and How to stop the sixth mass extinction (December 2016), CNN.
- Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Haff, P. K.; Schwägerl, Christian; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C. (2015). "The Anthropocene Biosphere". The Anthropocene Review 2 (3): 196–219. doi:10.1177/2053019615591020. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2053019615591020.
- 'Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform', Dixon S., et al. (2017) AREA, Royal Geographical Society issn=1475-4762
- Welcome to the Anthropocene]
- The Economist: The Anthropocene: A Man-Made World]
- Ten Things to Know About the Anthropocene]
- 100,000,000 Years From Now]
- (2014) Noam Chomsky: The Anthropocene Period and its Challenges]
- Wikipedia:Category:Human impact on the environment
- Wikipedia:Category:Human ecology
This page was based on the following wikipedia-source page: