Wright State University Lake Campus/2017-9/Antikythera

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Quiz lifted from Special:Permalink/1536534[edit]

Analog comoputer[edit]

Cam-based analog computer
  • A mechanical analog computer uses pulleys, levers, wheels or some other motion to solve problems of a mathematical nature.
+ true
- false

When did the European Rennaisance begin?[edit]

Timelines at http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/History_n2/a.html
-300 years
-3000 years
-30 years
+1500 years
-15,000 years

=The Antikythera device was dated to a century before the dawn of Christainity[edit]

  • The Antikythera device was dated to approximately
+ 100-150 BC
- 300-350 BC
- 300-350 AD
- 500-550 BC

Though on a Roman ship, the device was found not far from Greece[edit]

- true
+ false

Discovered by sponge divers circa 1900; remaine mystery for 80 years[edit]

+ sponge divers;   1900
- Jacques-Yves Cousteau;   1976

High quality of manufacture suggests others came before it[edit]

  • What clue is cited to suggest that the Antikythera device was not the first of its kind?}
+ The quality of its manufacture.
- Other boxes in the wreck seemed to have held similar devices.
- Chemical analysis of the bronze.
- Instructions for making other devices were found at the wreck site.

The Bronze age: add alloy metals to copper to make it hard[edit]

  • Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of ______, with other metals included ______}
+ copper;   to make it hard.
- copper;   to make it withstand corrosion.
- iron;   as impurities that served little or no purpose.
- copper;   as impurities that served little or no purpose.

They could X-ray the device but chemical analysis impossible due to corrosion[edit]

  • Chemical analysis of the bronze used in the gears of the Antikythera device }
+ was not possible due to the degree of corrosion.
- suggested that Roman technology was used.
- suggested that Greek technology was used.
- suggested that a number of such devices had been produced.

All evidence points to Greece, not Rome or Egypt as point of origin[edit]

  • Which of the following was NOT used as evidence in an effort to guess where the Antikythera device originated?}
- Some of the astronomical events associated with the device could have only have been seen from Corinth, a region associated with Archimedes.
- Coins at the site seemed to originate from Pergamon, where an important library was situated.
+ The Library of Alexandria, where Ptolemy would later work, would have been a likely destination or origin for the ship.
- Vases found at the site suggest an origin near the trading port of Rhodes, where Hipparchus was believed to have worked.

360 was a special number to the Babylonians[edit]

  • As the Sun, Moon, and planets seem to move around the Earth, they remain close to a circle, called the ecliptic, that can be drawn on paper or imagined in the sky. The Babylonians divided this circle into 12 equal sections of 30 degrees each, and labeled the sections after the zodiacal constellations.}
+ true
- false
  • As the Sun, Moon, and planets seem to move around the Earth, they remain close to a circle, called the ecliptic, that can be drawn on paper or imagined in the sky. The Babylonians divided this circle into 12 unequal sections of approximately 30 degrees each, and labeled the sections after the zodiacal constellations.}
- true
+ false

The Egyptians added 5 days to the "perfect" Sothic calendary[edit]

  • Sothic calendar was an Egyptian calendar with twelve months of 30 days plus five intercalary days to keep the year synchronous with the four seasons. }
+ true
- false

The Saros cycle was (ancient) Babylonian NOT Egyptian[edit]

  • Sothic calendar was an Egyptian calendar with twelve months of 30 days plus five intercalary days to keep the year synchronous with the Saros cycle.}
- true
+ false

The extra five days of the Sothic calendar were not synchronized to the Moon[edit]

  • Sothic calendar was an Egyptian calendar with twelve months of 30 days plus five intercalary days to keep the year synchronous with the Lunar phases.}
- true
+ false

Do the math: It takes 12 years to miss three leap years[edit]

  • The Sothic calendar of 365 days did not include an extra day every four years. As a consequence, it advanced by _____ days in 12 years}
+ 3
- 1
- 2
- 4

(1d/4y)x(8y)=2d[edit]

  • The Sothic calendar of 365 days did not include an extra day every four years. As a consequence, it advanced by _____ days in 8 years}
- 3
- 1
+ 2
- 4

The Greeks used Egyptian names for their months[edit]

  • The months of the Antikythera device are labeled with Egyptian names transcribed into Greek}
+ true
- false

The Greeks used Egyptian names for their months[edit]

  • The months of the Antikythera device are labeled with Greek names transcribed into Egyptian hieroglyphs.}
- true
+ false

Two eclipse season per year. From 2-4 eclipses per season.[edit]

  • Eclipse seasons last for approximately ______ and repeat just short of ______}
+ 34 days;   six months
- 7 days;   one month
- six months;   18 years
- one month;   18 years
- six months;   54 years

The Greeks invented the crown gear[edit]

  • Crown gear.png
    A ____________ is a gear which has teeth that projects at right angles to the face of the wheel.}
+ crown gear
- spiral bevel gear
- epicycle gear

The Antikythera device needed an instruction manual (table of numbers)[edit]

  • Evidence suggests that it was not possible to set the Antikythera device without referring to a written table to ascertain the dial settings for a given date.}
+ true
- false

The instructions included compensation for leap years[edit]

  • How did the Antikythera mechanism compensate for leap years?}
+ Two concentric dials were independently adjusted by hand; one dial marked a 365 day calendar, and the other marked the position of the Sun with respect to the ecliptic.
- Two concentric dials were independently adjusted by a differential gear; one dial marked a 365 day calendar, and the other marked the position of the Sun with respect to the ecliptic.
- There was no need to compensate for the leap year because the Sothic calendar included a leap year every four years.