Votian/Second Person Imperative

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Votian Imperative [1][edit]

The second person (direct order)[edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Morpheme -k -ka'a

Morphophonology[edit]

In all dialects both in Ingria and Estonia:

  • Plural of the second person imperative takes a consonant stem if possible e.g. e̮лkā ('Be!').
  • Singular of the second person imperative never follows any consonant stem e.g. e̮лe̮G ('Be!').
  • Plural and singular of the second person imperative are always in opposite grades caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. ttä-gā vs. tä ('Leave (it)!') or page̮t-kā vs. pake̮ne̮ ('Escape!').

Phonological history[edit]

  • Plural of the 2. person's imperative -ka'a (< -*kata) is probably composed of imperative component -k + plural 2. person's ta [6].
  1. t was lost due to the consonant gradation in suffixes [7].
  2. a of the subsequent syllables melt into ā.
  3. Long vowels disappeared in the dialects of Estonia.

Other Finnic dialects [8][edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 81
  2. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 19
  3. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 81
  4. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 8
  5. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 255
  6. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.153
  7. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 19
  8. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163

See also[edit]

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