Votian/Present Tense Negation

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Present tense negation [1] [2][edit]

Negative expressions are made of an auxiliary negation verb followed by a main verb.

The negation verb will be conjugated in various moods. See other negation lessons about this matter.


Morphemes[edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. eni -k emmak -k
2. eti -k ettak -k
3. epi -k evat -k

Morphophonology[edit]

  • Present tense negation is always in a grade opposite to any suffixal imperative form except the singular of the second person caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. elkō jättägō ('Let him not leave (it)!') vs. että jätä ('You do not leave (it)!') or page̮t-kā ('Escape!') vs. en pake̮n-e̮-(G) ('I do not escape.').

Phonological history [9][edit]

Other Finnic dialects [10][edit]

The first person of singular

The first person of plural

The second person of singular

The second person of plural

The third person of singular

The third person of plural

References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 88
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173
  3. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158
  4. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.62
  5. Vana Kannel IX, Lüganuse regilaulud 1999., p.24 M. Must "Lüganuse murrak"
  6. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Haho, 50; (in Estonian Literary Museum)
  7. Vana Kannel IX, Lüganuse regilaulud 1999., p.24 M. Must "Lüganuse murrak"
  8. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 250
  9. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.150, 158
  10. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158, 163-181

See also[edit]

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