Votian/Plural Nominative

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Plural nominative [1][edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Nominative marker

-t
  • Nominative case has no marker.
    • Plural nominative has only a plural marker -t [2]. It may take only a vowel stem.
    • Thus singular nominative is usually in a grade opposite to plural nominative, caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. seppä ('a blacksmith') vs. sepäD ('blacksmiths'), ammaz ('a tooth') vs. ampāD ('teeth') .
  • Singular nominative may be represented by a multisyllable consonant stem where available e.g. vare̮hse̮-D ('crows') vs. singular nominative vare̮z ('a crow').
    • A monosyllable consonant stem will have an additional -i in it's end e.g. singular partitive kuus-ta ('fir') vs. singular nominative kuus-i.
    • The plural nominative marker -t may be pronounced -t, -D or -d caused by sandhi . E.g. :
      • in the absolute end - lehmä-D ('cows' )
      • in front of a voiceless consonant - tüttäre-t ̮tulivaD ('The daughters came.' )
      • in front of a voiced consonant - tüttäre-d ̮dūmasivaD ('The daughters thought.' )

Declensions[edit]

Consonant stems occur in limited declensions. Their stem-vowel (originally e) was omitted in front of certain morphemes only. Those morphemes started with k, n or t. The stem-consonant was h, *k (> h), l, n, r, s or t.

m was later replaced with n, when stem-vowel was dropped e.g. лum-i ('snow') nominative , лume̮-лta ('from the snow') ablative vs. лun-ta ('(Take some) snow') partitive . [3]

Following declension types have consonant stems [4]:


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 21
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p. 93
  3. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.90
  4. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 53
  5. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 1; p. 210

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