Votian/Plural Cases

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Plural cases [1][edit]

Plural marker[edit]

The plural marker was -i-, added between a stem and a following case ending.

It has been preserved this way after short e̮   , u, ü, o   e.g. paŋke̮-i-ллa ('by buckets') < paŋge̮-ллa ('by a bucket'), vävü-i-lē ('to sons in law') < vävü-lē ('to a son in law'), lintu-i-ллa ('by the birds') < linnu-ллa ('by a bird'), e̮htago-i-ллa ('in the evenings') < e̮htago-ллa ('in the evening').

It is less obvious now after numerous sound changes. See the "Pronunciation" chapter below.

  • A plural stem is always in the strong grade, if there is such a grade available e.g. lintu-i-ллa ('by the birds') < linnu-ллa ('by a bird').
    • Yet a plural stem of some dialects may be in the weak grade in front of a short vowel, if it is in the weak grade in singular e.g. pezä-llä ('on a nest') > pezi-llä ('on nests'), jaлga-ллa ('by a foot') > jaлgo-ллa ('by feet').

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Long vowels and -i- melt together into diphthongs e.g. mā-ллa ('in a country') > mai-ллa ('in countries'), rattā-ллa ('by a wheel') > rattai-ллa ('by wheels').
  • Diphtongs e̮a and lost their last component in front of the plural -i- e.g. ke̮rke̮a-лē̮ ('into a high (place)') > ke̮rke̮i-лē̮ ('into high (places)'), pimeä-llä ('on a dark (way)') > pimei-llä ('on dark (ways)').


  • Short vowels have disappeared in front of the plural -i- or melt together with it into a long ī e.g. sepä-lē ('to a blacksmith') > seppī-lē ('to blacksmiths'), ärjä-lē ~ ärdžä-lē ('to an ox') > ärtšī-lē ('to oxen'), tšäe-llä ('on a hand') > tšäzi-llä ~ tšäsī-llä ('on hands'), naize̮-лē̮ ('to a woman') > naisī-лē̮ ('to women'), vanapa-лē̮ ('to an elder') > vanapī-лē̮ ('to elders'), sāttaja-лē̮ ('to an attendant') > sāttajī-лē̮ ('to attendants'), vokki-za ('in a spinning wheel') > vokkī-za ('in spinning wheels'). Yet:
    • a + -i- > e̮i in the second or third syllable, if the first syllable has o, u or ( The majority of stems belong here.)  : e.g.
      • nurka-ллa ('on a corner') > nurke̮i-ллa ('on corners')
      • poiga-лē̮ ('to her son') > poike̮i-лē̮ ('to her sons')
      • se̮bra-лē̮ ('to a friend') > se̮bre̮i-лē̮ ('to friends')
      • sāttaja-лē̮ ('to an attendant') > sāttaje̮i-лē̮ ('to attendants')
    • a + -i- > oi in the third or second syllable, if the first syllable has i, a or ( Then it's counterpart in Kukkuzi dialect is probably a)  : e.g.
      • adra-ллa ('by a plough') > adroi-ллa ('by ploughs')
      • kataga-ллa ('on a juniper') > katagoi-ллa ('on junipers').
      • se̮na-ллa ('in a word') > se̮noi-ллa ('with his words')
      • siллa-ллa ('on a bridge') > siлtoi-ллa ('on bridges')
        • Also: koto-ллa ('by a home') > kotoi-ллa ~ koi-ллa ('by homes') & rōto-ллa ('by a fish-bone') > rōtoi-ллa ~ roi-ллa ('by fish-bones')
    • ä + -i- > oi in the second syllable of some words, if the first syllable has ei  : e.g.
      • leivä-llä ('on a bread') > leipoi-ллa ('on breads')
  • The plural diphthongs oi, e̮i, ai, äi may lose their plural -i- in unstressed syllables e.g. se̮bre̮-лē̮ ('to friends').

Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Votic of Ingria
    • Eastern Votic dialect
      • o has been preserved anywhere in front of the plural -i- .
      • Diphtongs e̮a and and the plural -i- melt together into ī e.g. pimeä-llä ('on a dark (way)') > pim̆mī-llä ('on dark (ways)').
      • Short consonants were geminated in front of the long ī e.g. pimeä-llä ('on a dark (way)') > pim̆mī-llä ('on dark (ways)').
    • Western
      • In a group of villages the case endings are preceded by ai or äi ( depending in vowel harmony ) in plural
        • of some 2 syllable stems, if the stem vowel was i, u, o, e or  : e.g. tšive-llä ('on a stone') > tšiväi-llä ('on stones'), лahze̮-лē̮ ('to a kid') > лahsai-лē̮ ('to kids'), pojo-лē̮ ('to a boy') > pojai-лē̮ ('to boys'), pilli-llä ('by a musical instrument') > pilläi-llä ('by instruments')
        • of some 3 syllable stems, if the stem vowel was i or o  : e.g. ahvako-лē̮ ('to a perch') > ahvakkai-лē̮ ('to perches'), karjuši-лē̮ ('to a shepherd') > karjuššai-лē̮ ('to shepherds')
      • Hill dialect:
        • Diphtongs e̮a and and the plural -i- melt together into ī in ( Kattila and Pihlaala etc.) e.g. vaлke̮a-лē̮ ('onto a white (place)') > vaлkī-лē̮ ('onto white (places)'), pehmėä-llä ('on a soft (place)') > pehmī-llä ('on soft (places)').
      • Valley dialect:
        • All Votic (both eastern and western) dialects in contact with Soikkola ingrian dialect may use borrowed plural markers ( depending in vowel harmony ) -löi, -лoi or -läi, -лai (all four in the very same dialects) e.g. Mati dialect püssü-löi-llä ('by guns'), jarvi-лoi-ллa ('on lakes'), Kõrvõttula dialect se̮tamehi-läi-l̄   ('by warriors'), vittso-лai-л̄   ('by twigs').
        • Mati dialect
          • The plural diphthongs oi, e̮i, ai, äi are usually replaced with long vowels in unstressed syllables of plural partitive e.g. e̮hsa ('a tree branch') > e̮hsē̮ ('tree branches' - plural partitive), tšivi ('a stone') > tšiv̆vǟ ('stones' - plural partitive).
      • Vaipooli
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • o has been preserved anywhere in front of the plural -i- .
          • Short consonants were geminated in front of the long ī e.g. tšäe-llä ('on a hand') > tšässī-llä ('on hands').

Declensions[edit]

  • XIV Declension: -s stems ending with -iz in singular nominative have the same stem for plural and singular e.g. kallī-ллa ('on an expensive one') > kallī-ллa ('on expensive (things)').


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 42
  2. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 46
  3. Ahlqvist A. Wotisk grammatik jemte språkprof och ordförteckning. — Helsinki, 1856.

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