Votian/Participles

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Participles [1][edit]


Morphemes[edit]

 

Definite voice

Indefinite voice

Past tense -nut -ttu
Present tense -va -ttava
Agent participle -ja

Past tense[edit]

Definite voice -nut[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

The vowel u alternates with ü according to vowel harmony rules.

  • uppot+nut > en uponnu (" I did not drown. ")
  • üppät+nut > en üpännü (" I did not jump. ")


Morphophonology[edit]
  • The morpheme -nut takes a consonant stem if possible e.g. en pannu ('I did not put (it there).') vs. pan ('Put!').
    • Therefore it is always in the same grade as all the suffixal imperative forms except the singular of the second person e.g. elkō jättägō ('Let him not leave (it)!'), et jättännü ('You did not leave (it)!') vs. page̮t-kā ('Escape!'), emmä page̮n-nūD ('We did not escape.').
Dialectal alternatives[edit]
Declension[edit]
  1. In Jõgõperä dialect they may decline it according to a parallel declension influenced by Finnish and Ingrian dialects e.g. kōллu: kōллū: kōллūлē̮ vs. kōллu: kōллē̮: kōллē̮лē̮ ('(the one who has) died' - singular nominative, singular genitive, singular adessive).

See the lessons of partitive , present tense indefinite voice and ta infinitive about the loss of t after an unstressed vowel.

  1. I.e. the final t has disappeared from vowel stems and the ancient stem-vowel e has assimilated ü or u. But long vowels can occur only in the first syllable in Alutaguse, thus there is no vowel prolongation e.g. /sāB/ surne se̮numi ('/She gets/ a death omen'), jǟttänelt /päilt/ ('(when something was) frozen'), e̮ppet̆taja rǟkkis lahkunettest ('The teacher spoke about the left ones.').
    1. It's first n may be assimilated by the preceding dental consonant l, s e.g. e̮lleD ('been'), te̮isseD ('the risen ones' - in Lüganuse dialect tuisseD ), but not always by r e.g. surneD ('the dead ones').
      1. It's first n assimilates the preceding dental consonant t e.g. akka(n)ne /rohi/ ('a medicine against sertain disease') vs. akatta (infinitive). It may be degeminated by influence of Mid Estonian dialect.
    2. It's first n is geminated after a syllable, which carries a primary or secondary stress e.g. kuluneD ja mätänenneD ('outspent and rotten (things)').
      1. It's first n may be geminated after an unstressed vowel also, but is weaker there e.g. jahtun̆neD /vorstiD/ ('simmered /sausages/').
  2. The singular partitive -nut+ta will sound -nD (or -ne in Lüganuse dialect) e.g. /neli/ surrunD or /neli/ surne ('/Four/ dead (men).').
    1. The plural partitive -nut+i+ta will sound -ni e.g. /te̮i/ kuivani /e̮ksi/ ('/He brought/ dried /twigs/.').
  3. Usage of singular and plural has become very irregular lately under the influence of Mid Estonian dialect [8].


Phonological history [9][edit]
  • See the imperfect tense negation about the usage of plural -nutet.
  • Singular -nut has lost it's vowel or the final t in various Finnic dialects.


Other Finnic dialects [10][edit]

Singular

Plural


Indefinite voice -ttu[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

The vowel u alternates with ü according to vowel harmony rules.

  • uppot+ttu > upottu (" drowned ")
  • üppät+ttu > üpättü (" jumped ")


Morphophonology[edit]

Indefinite voice suffixes take a consonant stem if available.

Verbal stem is therefore always in the weak grade.

  • лuget̮tu ('read') X лuke̮kā ('Read!' - plural imperative)
  • vs. magattu ('slept') X makā ('Sleep!' - singular imperative) [11].


t component of indefinite voice suffixes stays geminated only after unstressed vowels e.g. tako+ttu > tagottu ('beaten').

  •   ̄ + ttu > tu: e.g. sā-tu ('got') < sā-ttu.
  • t + ttu > ttu: e.g. tšiuzat-tu ('molested') < tšiusat-ttu.
  • h + ttu > htu: e.g. teh-tü ('made') < teh-ttu.
  • s + ttu > stu: e.g. pes-tü ('washed') < pes-ttu.
  • л + ttu > лtu: e.g. tuл-tu ('come') < tuл-ttu
  • l + ttu > ltu: e.g. pidel-tü ('held') < pitel-ttu
  • r + ttu > rtu: e.g. sur-tu ('dead') < sur-ttu.
  • n + ttu (after primary stress) > ntu: e.g. pan-tu ('put') < pan-ttu.
    • n + ttu (elsewhere) > ttu: e.g. apat-tu ('acidified') < appan-ttu.


In front of any indefinite voice marker (except present tense indefinite voice) the stem-vowel a alternates with and ä alternates with e e.g. ve̮tta+ttu > ve̮tttu ('taken'), tšēltä+ttu > tšēlettü ('forbidden').


Usage[edit]
  1. Indefinite voice imperfect tense negation - e.g. ep ̮ jōtu   (" Nobody drank. ")
  2. Adjective participial , modifier - e.g. tu jōma   (" A drink, which has been drunk. ")


Dialectal alternatives[edit]
  • Votic of Ingria
    • Eastern Votic dialect
      • A -ttuk suffix is composed of an indefinite voice past tense participle suffix -ttu and a metanalytic negation marker -k borrowed from the present tense negation , where it is a present tense marker .
        • sā-ttu > sā-tuG ('got'), ve̮tta+ttu > vē̮ttuG ('taken'), tappa+ttu > tape̮ttuG ('killed'), tukka+ttu > tukattuG ('buried')
      • The -t component of the suffix has usually been assimilated with preceding s like in indefinite voice.
        • s + ttu > ssu: e.g. pes-süG ('washed'), ne̮issuG ('risen, started'), väris-süG ('trembled').
Phonological history [12][edit]


Other Finnic dialects [13][edit]


Present tense[edit]

Definite voice -va[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

The vowel a alternates with ä according to vowel harmony rules.

  • uppota+va > uppoava (" drowning ")
  • üppätä+va > üppǟvä (" jumping ")

See the lessons of partitive , present tense indefinite voice and ta infinitive about the loss of t after an unstressed vowel.


Morphophonology[edit]

The morpheme -va takes a vowel stem e.g. en pannu ('I did not put (it there).') vs. pane̮va ('putting').

  • Therefore it is always in the strong grade e.g. tä-G ('Leave (it)!') vs. ttä-vä ('leaving') or page̮t-kā ('Escape!') vs. pake̮ne̮-va ('escaping').


Phonological history [14][edit]

-va suffix is the weak grade of the original *-pa. See the lessons of partitive , present tense indefinite voice and ta infinitive about analogical consonant gradation in stems.

  • The morpheme of the third person of plural is derived from the same -va suffix with a plural nominative marker t.
  • The same suffix has underwent following sound changes *-pa > *-pi > -p and became to mark the third person of singular.


Usage[edit]


Other Finnic dialects [15][edit]


Indefinite voice -ttava[edit]

The indefinite voice describes an action without giving any information about it's agent. Hence an indefinite participle like sȫtävä could be translated approximately as: "something, that somebody eats" or simply "edible". The person, who would eat it, is indefinite.


Pronunciation[edit]

The vowel a alternates with ä according to vowel harmony rules.

  • uppot+ttava > upottava (" drownable ")
  • üppät+ttava > üpättävä (" jumpable ")


Morphophonology[edit]

Indefinite voice suffixes take a consonant stem if available.

Verbal stem is therefore always in the weak grade.

  • лuget̮tava ('readable') X лuke̮kā ('Read!' - plural imperative)
  • vs. magattava ('sleepable') X makā ('Sleep!' - singular imperative) [16].


t component of indefinite voice suffixes stays geminated only after unstressed vowels e.g. tako+ttava > tagottava ('beaten').

  •   ̄ + ttava > tava: e.g. sā-tava ('gettable') < sā-ttava.
  • t + ttava > ttava: e.g. tšiuzat-tava ('molestable') < tšiusat-ttava.
  • h + ttava > htava: e.g. teh-tävä ('makable') < teh-ttava.
  • s + ttava > stava: e.g. pes-tävä ('washable') < pes-ttava.
  • л + ttava > лtava: e.g. tuл-tava ('comable') < tuл-ttava
  • l + ttava > ltava: e.g. pidel-tävä ('holdable') < pitel-ttava
  • r + ttava > rtava: e.g. sur-tava ('dieable') < sur-ttava.
  • n + ttava (after primary stress) > ntava: e.g. pan-tava ('puttable') < pan-ttava.
    • n + ttava (elsewhere) > ttava: e.g. apat-tava ('acidifyable') < appan-ttava.


In front of any indefinite voice marker (except present tense indefinite voice) the stem-vowel a alternates with and ä alternates with e e.g. ve̮tta+ttava > ve̮tttava ('takeable'), tšēltä+ttava > tšēlettävä ('forbiddable').


Usage[edit]
  • Adjective participial , modifier - e.g. tava jōma   (" A drink, which would (or might) be drunk. "), suvattava   (" amiable, lovable, mistress ")
  • obligation - e.g. pantava on pajate̮ttava i naite̮ttava on nagre̮ttava   (" People should talk about the one, whom others must find a groom for and people should laugh at the one, whom others must find a bride for. " ~ a proverb)


Phonological history [17][edit]
  • The -ttava suffix is composed of an indefinite voice marker -tta and the definite voice -va ending.


Other Finnic dialects [18][edit]


Agent participle[edit]

Active agent participle -ja[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

The vowel a alternates with ä according to vowel harmony rules.

  • uppota+ja > uppoaja (" drowner ")
  • üppätä+ja > üppǟjä (" jumper ")

See the lessons of partitive , present tense indefinite voice and ta infinitive about the loss of t after an unstressed vowel.


Morphophonology[edit]

The morpheme -ja takes a vowel stem e.g. en pannu ('I did not put (it there).') vs. panija ('the one who puts something').

  • Therefore it is always in the strong grade e.g. vei̮ta-G ('Win!') vs. ve̮itta-ja ('winner') or page̮t-kā ('Escape!') vs. pake̮ni-ja ('refugee').


Short e / were substituted by i in front of j.

  • E.g. e + -i- > i: nätševäD ('They see.') > nätši   (" someone who sees ").
  • E.g. + -i- > i: e̮лe̮vaD ('being' present tense participle) > e̮lija ('the one who is.').


Usage[edit]

-ja morpheme marks


Dialectal alternatives[edit]
  • Votic of Ingria
    • Western
      • Vaipooli
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • The vowel of the this suffix may be -e, -e̮ .
            • -je, -je̮   e.g. лauлo-je̮ ('singer'), tšüsüje ('the one who asks'), sāje̮ ('the one who gets something')


Phonological history[edit]


Other Finnic dialects [21][edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 86-108
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158
  3. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 277-282
  4. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 278
  5. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 278
  6. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 279
  7. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 279
  8. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 281
  9. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.162
  10. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158, 163-181
  11. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173 etc.
  12. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163
  13. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163-181
  14. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.162
  15. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158, 163-181
  16. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173 etc.
  17. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.162
  18. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163-181
  19. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.136
  20. [w: Lithuanian_grammar | Lithuanian grammar ]
  21. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.136

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