Votian/Negative Imperative

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Negative imperative [1] [2][edit]

Negative expressions are made of an auxiliary negation verb followed by a main verb.

  • The negation verb has the following imperative forms according to it's number and person: eläk, elka'a, elko'on, elko'ot.
  • The main verb has the same imperative morpheme as the auxiliary e.g. elkōD jättägōD ('Let them not leave (it)!').

The negation verb will be conjugated in various moods. See other negation lessons about this matter.


Morphemes[edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. Analytic only Analytic
2. eläk -k elka'a -ka'a
3. elko'on -ko'on elko'ot -ko'ot
  • The second person of singular:
    • See the previous lessons about dialectal variations in pronunciation of final -k of the main verb and the negation verb ~ eläk.
    • E.g. eläg_e̮лe̮G ~ elä e̮лe̮ ~ älä e̮лe̮ ('Don't be (like that)!'). (elä e̮le ~ älä e̮le in Lüganuse dialect [3])
  • The second person of plural:
    • See the previous lessons about dialectal and morphophonological alternatives of the ending -ka'a.
    • E.g. elkā e̮лkā ~ älkā e̮лkā ('Don't be (like that)!'). (älk̆ä e̮lGa ~ älGä e̮lGa in Lüganuse dialect [4])
  • The third person of singular:
    • See the previous lessons about dialectal and morphophonological alternatives of the ending -ko'ot.
    • E.g. elkō e̮лkō ~ älkō e̮лkō ('Don't let him be (like that)!'). (älGo e̮lGo in Lüganuse dialect [5])
  • The third person of plural:
    • See the previous lessons about dialectal and morphophonological alternatives of the ending -ko'ot.
    • E.g. elkōd_ e̮лkōD ~ elkō e̮лkō ~ älkō e̮лkō ('Don't let them be (like that)!'). (älGo e̮lGo in Lüganuse dialect [6])

Morphophonology[edit]

  • Singular of the second person imperative is always in a grade opposite to any other suffixal imperative form caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. elkō jättägō ('Let him not leave (it)!') vs. elä jätä ('Do not leave (it)!') or älkā page̮t-kā vs. elä pake̮ne̮ ('Don't escape!').

Other Finnic dialects [7][edit]

The first person of singular

The first person of plural

The second person of singular

The second person of plural

The third person of singular

The third person of plural

References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 90
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173
  3. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  4. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  5. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  6. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  7. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.154, 163-181

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