Votian/Indefinite Imperative

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Indefinite voice [1][edit | edit source]

The indefinite voice describes an action without giving any information about it's agent. Hence an indefinite imperative like jute̮лtagō could be translated approximately as: "Somebody should say!". The person or persons, whom we want to say something, is indefinite. We don't care too much, who exactly would do it. It is important for us, that it would be said and no more.


Negation verb

Main verb ending

Imperative elko'on -ttako'on

The -ttako'on suffix is composed of an indefinite voice marker -tta and a third person's singular imperative ending -ko'on.

  • Dialectal alternatives of the morpheme -ko'on were described in the lesson of Votian imperative.
  • Dialectal alternatives of the negation verb elko'on were described in the lesson about negative imperative e.g. elkō e̮лtagō vs. älkō e̮лtagō ('Let (anyone) be (like that)!').

Morphophonology[edit | edit source]

The first t is geminated after a short vowel only, elsewhere the suffix is degeminated e.g. ve̮te̮ttagō ('Let (it) be taken!') vs. jute̮лtagō ('Let (it) be said!').

The vowel a alternates with ä according to vowel harmony rules e.g. levvettä ('Let (it) be found!').

In front of any indefinite voice marker (except present tense indefinite voice) the stem-vowel

  • a alternates with
  • and ä alternates with e
    • E.g. levvettägō ( vs. levvä - the 2. person's singular imperative), ve̮tttagō ( vs. ve̮ta - the 2. person's singular imperative).

Indefinite voice suffixes take a consonant stem if available.

Other Finnic dialects [2][edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 83, 90
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163-181

See also[edit | edit source]

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