Votian/Imperfect Tense of Indefinite Voice

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Indefinite voice [1][edit]

The indefinite voice describes an action without giving any information about it's agent. Hence an imperfect tense indefinite expression like püvvettī could be translated approximately as: "Somebody cought!". We don't bother ourselves clarifying, who was it.

Mood

Negation verb

Main verb ending

Imperfect tense indicative -ttiin
Imperfect tense indicative negation epi -ttu


Morphophonology[edit]

The final -n was pronounced as a prolongation of the preceding vowel e.g. tek+tiin > tehtī ('Somebody did').


The first t is geminated after a short vowel only, elsewhere the suffix is degeminated e.g. ve̮te̮ttī ('Somebody took') vs. jute̮лtī ('Somebody said!') or sȫtī ('Somebody did eat!').


Indefinite voice suffixes take a consonant stem if available.


In front of any indefinite voice marker (except present tense indefinite voice) the stem-vowel a alternates with and ä alternates with e e.g. tširjota+ttiin > tširjotttī ('Somebody wrote').


Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Dialectal alternatives of the negation verb epi were described in the lesson about present tense negation e.g. ep e̮лtu vs. ei e̮lDu ('Nobody was.') .


  1. The suffix -ttiin has became
    1. -tti (after a syllable of primary or secondary stress) e.g. luke+ttiin > luetti ('Somebody (did) read' ) , kuivata+ttiin > kuivaDetti ('Somebody dried' )
    2. -t̆ti (after an unstressed syllable) e.g. aja+ttiin > ajat̆ti ('Somebody chased' ) - Jõhvi dialect
    3. -ti (after a voiceless consonant) e.g. las+ttiin > lasti ('Somebody shot' )
    4. -t̆i or -Di (after a voiced consonant or a vowel with primary stress) e.g. tuo+ttiin > tuoDi ('Somebody brought' ), men+ttiin > menDi ('Somebody went' )
  • Alutaguse runic songs [6] have preserved a more archaic suffix *-tta+i+hen > -tiie, -diie, -die, -tie  :
    • üteldie, räägitie, valetie ('Somebody said, told, poured') [7]

Other Finnic dialects [8][edit]

References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 83, 90
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.156
  3. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173 etc.
  4. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 90
  5. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 263.
  6. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 266
  7. The collection of J Hurt II 9, 736 (in Estonian Literary Museum)
  8. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.163-181

See also[edit]

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