Votian/Imperfect Tense Negation

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Imperfect tense negation [1] [2] [3] [4][edit]

Negative expressions are made of an auxiliary negation verb followed by a main verb.

The negation verb will be conjugated in various moods. See other negation lessons about this matter.


Morphemes[edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. eni -nut emmak -nutet
2. eti -nut ettak -nutet
3. epi -nut evat -nutet

Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  1. In Eastern Votic dialect they have added a metanalytic morpheme -k to the past participle's singular nominative -nut for past tense negation e.g. emmäG ̮vēnnǖD ('We did not take (it away).') vs. etnnüG ('You did not take (it away).'). The suffix -k is probably borrowed from the present tense negation here, where it was a present tense marker [5].

Person

Singular

Plural

1. eni -nutk emmak -nutet
2. eti -nutk ettak -nutet
3. epi -nutk evat -nutet
  1. In Kodavere dialect [6] [7] [8] the negation verb has specific past tense forms: eZìn, eZìmä, eZìD, eZìttä, es̀, eZìD. This feature is unique among all the Finnic dialects, but has parallels in other Uralic languages e.g. Erzya eźiń, eźińek, eźit́, eźid́e, eś, eśt́.


Morphophonology[edit]

  • Past imperfect tense negation is always in the same grade as all the suffixal imperative forms except the singular of the second person e.g. elkō jättägō ('Let him not leave (it)!') vs. et jättännü ('You did not leave (it)!') or page̮t-kā ('Escape!') vs. emmä page̮n-nūD ('We did not escape.').

See the participle chapter for detailed explanations.

Phonological history [9][edit]

Other Finnic dialects [10][edit]

The first person of singular

The first person of plural

The second person of singular

The second person of plural

The third person of singular

The third person of plural

References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 88
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173
  3. Vana Kannel IX, Lüganuse regilaulud 1999., p.27 M. Must "Lüganuse murrak"
  4. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 279
  5. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158
  6. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 250
  7. A. Univere 1974. Idamurde tekstid. (Eesti murded IV), p.73 (a manuscript in Institute of the Estonian Language)
  8. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158
  9. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.150, 158
  10. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158, 163-181

See also[edit]

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