Votian/Imperative

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Votian Imperative [1] [2][edit]

Morphemes[edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. Analytic only -kama
2. -k -ka'a
3. -ko'on -ko'ot

Morphophonology[edit]

In all dialects both in Ingria and Estonia:

  • Singular of the second person imperative is always in a grade opposite to any other suffixal imperative form caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. jättägō ('Let him leave (it)!') vs. jätä ('Leave (it)!').

Phonological history[edit]

  • Singular of the 3. person's imperative -ko'on (< -*kohen < ? -*kaihen) is probably composed of imperative component -k + 3. person's singular hen [13].
  1. Vowels of the subsequent syllables have been assimilated -kohon.
  2. h was lost.
  3. o of subsequent syllables melt into ō.
  4. The final n melt into ō.
  5. Long vowels disappeared in the dialects of Estonia.

Other Finnic dialects [15][edit]

The third person of singular

The third person of plural

The first person of plural

References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 81
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173
  3. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 255
  4. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Haho, 98; (in Estonian Literary Museum)
  5. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 135, 255
  6. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 19
  7. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 81
  8. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 8
  9. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 19
  10. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 81
  11. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 8
  12. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  13. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.154
  14. Must, Mari 1987. Kirderannikumurre: häälikuline ja grammatiline ülevaade. p. 256
  15. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.154

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