Votian/External Locative Cases

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External locative cases [1][edit]

Case

Suffix

Question

Adessive

-lla kuza , millä , tšenellä

Ablative

-lta kussa , miltä , tšeneltä

Allative

-llen kuhē̮ , millē , tšenellē
  • The suffixes of all the external locative cases are composed of different directional suffixes following an -l component, which indicates a location on something
  1. *-l + -na 'being in a certain situation' > -lla
  2. *-l + -n (or -hen, -sen, which could explain the gemination) 'towards' > -llen
  3. *-l + -ta 'away from' > -lta [2]

The -l component of all the external locative cases has probably the same origin as the derivation suffix of location nouns -la [3] e.g. Karja-la ' Karelia '.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronunciation of the adessive -lla morpheme

  1. is generally
    1. -llä, -ллa   ( depending in vowel harmony ) e.g. mei-llä ('by us'), mā-ллa ('on the ground')
  2. the final vowel of this morpheme may be omitted depending in it's position in a sentence (especially in Jõgõperä dialect).
    1. -ll, -лл   -l̄, -л̄   e.g. rǟguttī sūre-̮лл ̮ ǟle-llä ('somebody shouted loud'), nahka-īri päivä-l̄ ev ̮ ve̮i lennellä ('a bat can not fly at daytime'), ke̮ikī лauлu-л̄   tuлtī ('they all came singing')
  3. after a long vowel with primary stress the -l component may be degeminated
    1. -l, -л   e.g. mei-l velli jäi kotō ('Our brother remained at home.'), tei-l sünnüp ̮ tütär ('A daughter will be born to you.')


Pronunciation of the ablative -lta morpheme

  1. is generally
    1. -ltä, -лta   ( depending in vowel harmony ) e.g. mei-ltä ('from us'), mā-лta ('from the ground')
  2. the final vowel of this morpheme may be omitted depending in it's position in a sentence (especially in Jõgõperä dialect).
    1. -lt, -лt   e.g. tä-lt tšüzüttī ('She was asked'), e̮li vanaл-t naize̮-лta jǟnnü tütär ('The ex-wife had left (him) a daughter.')


Pronunciation of the allative -llen morpheme has dialectal and individual peculiarities, but generally:

  1. after a long or unstressed vowel the -l component is degeminated
    1. -lē, -лē̮   ( depending in vowel harmony ) e.g. vȫ-lē ('on the waist'), naize̮-лē̮ ('to a woman'), se̮sarī-лē̮ ('to sisters')
  2. after a short vowel with primary or secondary stress the -l component is geminated
    1. -llē, -ллē̮   e.g. tše-llē ('whom to'), tä-llē ('to her'), se̮sare̮-ллē̮ ('to the sister')
  3. In Luuditsa dialect and elsewhere the vowel of this morpheme may be shortened depending in it's position in a sentence (especially after personal pronouns).
    1. -le, -лe̮   e.g. mei-le ('to us')
    2. or -lle, -ллe̮   e.g. mi-ллe̮ ('to me'), tä-lle ('to her')

Usage[edit]

Adessive -lla[edit]

  1. time - e.g. e̮lin lidnaza sü,tšüzüllä ('I was in the city this autumn.'), nahka-īri päivä-l̄ ev ̮ ve̮i lennellä ('a bat can not fly at daytime')
    1. if the time unit has an attribute, then the attribute only will be in adessive , but the time unit itself is in partitive case - e.g. senel̄   päivǟ ('on that day'), ühel̄   ke̮rtā tuli sūr tūli ('Once there was a big wind')
  2. location on something - e.g. tšīma-pīrga e̮li lavva-ллa ('A wedding-pie was on the table.') [4]
  3. location near to somebody - e.g. e̮limma tei-l ('We were at your place.'), ke̮ikī piäb ̮ e̮ллa kunikā-l̄   ('Everybody must be at the kings place.'), k a t t i л a - ллa on kahs tšülǟ e̮ttsā ('There are two (village-) ends in Kattila.')
  4. (current) owner - e.g. mi-л̄   on üvä lehmä ('I have a good cow.'), pe̮dra-ллa on sūre̮t ̮ sarve̮D ('An elk has big antlers.'), tüttäriko-ллa be̮лe̮ emǟ ('The girl has no mother.'), teil sünnüp ̮ tütär ('A daughter will be born to you'), se̮sare̮-ллa kōlī poika ('My sister's son passed away.')
  5. mean or tool - e.g. meniväd ̮ лaiva-ллa sinne ('They went there by ship.')
  6. concurrent activity or process (How?) - e.g. ke̮ikī лauлu-л̄   tuлtī ('they all came singing')
  7. obligation - e.g. kui mi-л̄   mennä ('How should I go?!' ? a Russian influence), kumma-л̄   silmät ̮ tšīn panna ('Who must close his eyes?'), tä-l̄   piti e̮ллa kahtē̮te̮.šše̮mē̮   tunnīssā ('She had to be (there) until twelve O'Clock.')
  • Adessive -lla + possessive *-hen has produced some adverbs - e.g. ürvü-llǟ ('slightly open' ), uhzē̮   e̮li jättännü rago-ллā ('He had left the door ajar.'), täl̄   on ke̮rvad ̮ лokkō-ллā ('It has saggy ears.')

Ablative -lta[edit]

  1. time (which has passed by) - e.g. vōsi vuvve̮-лta on parapi elǟ ('Year after year the life becomes better.')
  2. (previous) owner, source - e.g. tšüzüp ̮ tä-lt ('(He) asks from her.'), sain tširjā poiga-лta ('I got a letter from my son.'), mi-лta jaлgā murtī ('It broke my leg.'), avas ̮ karu-лt silmäD ('He opened the bear's eyes.'), e̮le̮n mūne̮ttu ne̮d́d́a-лt ('I am bewitched by a witch.')
  3. relocation from (above) something or somebody - e.g. ke̮z pe̮ллo-лta tule̮mma ('When we shall come from the field ...'), tulin bābuška-лta ('I came from my grandmother.'), kui me̮ne̮-лt virsta-лt tuli ('How many miles did he come?')
  • Adessive -lta + possessive *-hen has produced some adverbs - e.g. kala e̮se̮ttī elävä-ltǟ ('The fish was bought alive.' ), sȫp ̮tšihva-лtā ('He eats it hot.'), rǟgahtī ke̮rt nime-ltǟ ('She called her once by name.')

Allative -llen[edit]

  1. onto (relocation to another position) - e.g. pani mē̮kā vȫ-lē ('(He) fixed the sword on the waist.'), viskāmma mā-лē̮ ! ('Let's throw it down!')
  2. towards something - e.g. tuli vana-лē̮ ämmä-lē ('He came to (visit) an old women.')
  3. target (to or for somebody) - e.g. ke̮ik mi-ллe̮ jätä ('Leave it all to me!'), ne̮isi tämä se̮sarai-лē̮ nīttämǟ ('He began to mow for his sisters.'), mēmmä tȫ-lē ('We go to work.')
  4. result - e.g. ke̮ik jaлgad̮ rikkozin vere-lē ('I injured my feet. Now the feet are covered with blood.'), venüttǟs̄   pitšä-lē ('It will be stretched long.'), лazzid̮ minua voli-лē̮ ('They let me free.' ? a Russian influence)
  5. (usually a future) owner - e.g. nüd̮ miä sinū pane̮n mehe-lē ('Now I will marry you to a man.'), naisiuzi te̮ize̮-лē̮ naize̮-лē̮ ('He married another woman.'), mi-ллe̮ ke̮lme̮t̮ päivǟ to´lki elǟ ('I have only three days to live.' ? a Russian influence), tä-llē täütti kahtšümmet̄   vōtta ('He has got twenty years old.' ? a Russian influence)
  6. impression ( a sense) - e.g. kui üvä-lē haize̮p̮ ke̮ik ! ('Oh, how good does all that smell !'), ivuhse̮d on musa-лē̮ ('The hair looks black.')
  7. obligation, permission - e.g. kui mi-ллe̮   mennä ('How should I go?!' ? a Russian influence), anna mi-ллe̮ tšävvä ('Let me walk!' ? a Russian influence), mitä si-ллe̮ vajā ('What do you need?'), tšähsi tüttäre-llē panna vȫ-lē tšīn ('He ordered his daughter ( ? a Russian influence) to fix it on her waist.')
  8. visiting a certain place frequently - e.g. ühz̮ naizikko tšäüs nīttämǟ pe̮ллo-лē̮ ('A women used to go mowing a field.'), kuttse̮   puлme̮i-лē̮sē̮ ('(She) invited to weddings constantly.')

Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Votic of Ingria
    • Eastern Votic dialect
      • The adessive suffix may be degeminated.
        • -lä, -лa   e.g. ǖ-lä ('at night'), ope̮ze̮-лa ('by horse')
    • Western
      • Hill:
      • Pontizõõ dialect
        • The allative suffix is degeminated after a short vowel with secondary stress as well.
          • -lē, -лē̮   e.g. tüttäre-lē ('to the daughter'), tuttava-лē̮ ('to an acquaintance')
      • Vaipooli
        • Luuditsa dialect
          • The allative suffix is geminated after an unstressed vowel also.
            • or -lle, -ллe̮   e.g. mehe-llē ('to a man'), kana-ллē̮ ('to a hen')
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • The final long vowel (of the allative suffix) has not the full length any more.
            • -llè, -ллè̮̮   e.g. tüttere-llè ('to the daughter'), mehe-lè ('to a man'), mā-лè̮̮ ('to the ground')
          • The vowel of the adessive suffix may be -e, -e̮ .
            • -lle, -ллe̮   e.g. tšäe-lle ('on a hand'), nurme̮-ллe̮ ('on a field')
          • The vowel of the ablative suffix may be -e, -e̮ .
            • -lte, -лte̮   e.g. värttene-lte ('from a spindle'), paike̮-лte̮ ('from one's place')


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 27-35
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p. 105
  3. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p. 105
  4. Ariste, Paul: Vadjalane kätkist kalmuni. Emakeele Seltsi toimetised 10. Tallinn: Valgus, 1974. p. 121

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