Votian/Essive

From Wikiversity
Jump to: navigation, search
Globe of letters.svg Subject classification: this is a language-learning resource.
Chess.svg Educational level: this is a non-formal education resource.
Nuvola apps edu miscellaneous.svg Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
TaoismSymbolWhite.PNG Completion status: Deliberately incomplete for educational purposes.
Crystal Clear talk.png Attribution: User Mikk created this resource and is actively using it. Please coordinate future development with this user if possible.


Essive [1][edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Essive marker

-na -ina


Morphophonology and pronunciation[edit]

Essive suffix tends to take a multisyllabel consonant stem if available e.g. tševät-tä > tševännä ("in the spring") vs. nōr-na > nōre̮na ("as a youngster").

Notice the following phonetic changes!

  • t + n > nn: e.g. ke̮лme̮n-na ('the third one') < *ke̮лme̮t-na.
  • n + n > nn: e.g. ōme̮n-na ('tomorrow') < *ōme̮n-na.
  • In some dialects the -n component may be geminated after a vowel stem as well.
    • Mati , Kõrvõttula , Lempola
      • t + n : e.g. kōллūnna ('a dead one') < kōллuD-na.
      • s + n : e.g. se̮tamehennä ('warrior') < se̮tamēz-na.
      • vowel + n : e.g. üvä-nnä ('a good one'), emä-nnä ('mother'), e̮htago-nna ('evening'), prāznikka-nna ('party')
    • Jõgõperä
      • vowel + n : e.g. pēne-nne ('a small one'), ohte̮go-nne̮ ('evening')
  • Pronunciation of essive suffix varies according to vowel harmony -na, -nä e.g. лahse̮na (" as a child (in childhood) "), tahto üvä e̮ллa (" She wanted to be a good one. ")
  • The final vowel of the suffix may be shortened depending in it's position in a sentence e.g. marjoikā süönnünn ̮ e̮ллa (" to satisfy ones hunger with berries " Lempola ), tuлe̮n ōme̮   pǟn (" I shall come tomorrow. "), ize meni tūлe̮   ("She went like a wind herself.") Lempola .


Usage[edit]

Essive may express

  1. time - e.g. se e̮li e̮htago   ("It was in the evening."), näväd ̮ ne̮istī ōmnikko   ("They woke up in the morning." Mati ), vid́d́espǟn lähsi   ("She went away on Friday."), tämä süntü jo meńńän   ("She was born last year already."), prāznikkan e̮li tšüläzä paĺĺo vätšiä   ("During the party there were many people in the village.")
  2. location somewhere - e.g. issuzivat ̮ ke̮ikī lavvā takana ("They all sat at the table."), tšen on kotona ? ("Who is at home?"), elimme izǟ vellē tüvenne ("We lived at my fathers uncle." Jõgõperä )
  3. carrying the characteristic features of something or somebody - e.g. älä e̮лe̮ tuisku-tupurinna ja лaiska-лapurinna (' Don't be light-minded and lazy.' Lempola ), kui miä e̮lin tüttärikkona   k a t t i л a л л a ("When I was a maid in Kattila village ..."), lēb ̮ лahzē̮   emännä ("She will be a mother."), e̮lin se̮tamehennä   t a l l i n a z a ("I was a soldier in Tallinn."), vai siä karjušši   e̮лe̮D ? ("Are you a herdsman?")
  4. being in a certain condition - e.g. tahto üvä e̮ллa (" She wanted to be a good one. "), makāb ̮ jo kōлūna māta tšebiätä ("She sleeps as a dead one in a light ground already."), marjoikā süönnünn ̮ e̮ллa (" to satisfy ones hunger with berries " Lempola ), e̮лe̮izit ̮ siä sīnä tūлē̮   tuiskuna ("If you were there as fast as a whirl-wind ...")
  • Essive -na + possessive *-hen has produced some adverbs - e.g. e̮li ühsi   ("He was alone.") [2], ühste̮.šše̮me̮t̄   tunnia sāp ̮ täün   ("It will be eleven O'Clock soon." Mati ), ül̆leüd kauniz ("completely red" Itšäpäivä dialect), on va aivo ühs rōja ("There is nothing but mud.")


Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Votic of Ingria
    • Western
      • In some dialects the -n component may be geminated after a vowel stem as well.
        • Mati , Kõrvõttula , Lempola
          • t + n : e.g. kōллūnna ('a dead one') < kōллuD-na.
          • s + n : e.g. se̮tamehennä ('warrior') < se̮tamēz-na.
          • vowel + n : e.g. üvä-nnä ('a good one'), emä-nnä ('mother'), e̮htago-nna ('evening'), prāznikka-nna ('party')
      • Vaipooli
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • The vowel of abessive suffix may be -ē, -ē̮   .
            • e.g. pēne-nne ('a small one'), ohte̮go-nne̮ ('evening')


See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 36
  2. Suffixal comitative
Wikipedia-logo.png Search for Votian/Essive on Wikipedia.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Search Wikiquote for quotations related to: Votian/Essive
Wikibooks-logo.svg Wikibooks has more on the topic of Votian/Essive.
Wiktionary-logo.svg Look up Votian/Essive in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikinews-logo.svg Search Wikinews for news items related to Votian/Essive.
Wikispecies-logo.svg Wikispecies has information related to: Votian/Essive