Votian/Consonant Stem

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Consonant stems occur in limited declensions and conjugations. Their stem-vowel (originally e) was omitted in front of certain morphemes only. Those morphemes started with k, n or t. The stem-consonant was h, *k (> h), l, n, r, s or t.

m was later replaced with n, when stem-vowel was dropped e.g. лume̮-лta ('from the snow' ablative ) vs. лun-ta ('(Take some) snow' partitive ). [1]

Conjugations[edit]

Following conjugation types have consonant stems [2]:

Morphemes[edit]

Following morphemes take a consonant stem where available:

Declensions[edit]

Following declension types have consonant stems [3]:

Morphemes[edit]

Following morphemes take a consonant stem where available:

(in certain dialects also:)

  • Singular essive e.g. tševän-nä ('in spring') < *kevät-na.
  • Plural genitive e.g. ammas-te ('of teeth') in late Alutaguse and Vaiga dialects of Estonia influenced by Mid Estonian dialect.

References[edit]

  1. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.90
  2. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 104
  3. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 53
  4. E. Adler, M. Leppik: Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v. 1; p. 210

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