Votian/Conditional

From Wikiversity
Jump to: navigation, search
Globe of letters.svg Subject classification: this is a language-learning resource.
Chess.svg Educational level: this is a non-formal education resource.
Nuvola apps edu miscellaneous.svg Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
TaoismSymbolWhite.PNG Completion status: Deliberately incomplete for educational purposes.
Crystal Clear talk.png Attribution: User Mikk created this resource and is actively using it. Please coordinate future development with this user if possible.


Conditional mood [1][edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. -iksi-n -iksi-mmak
2. -iksi-t -iksi-ttak
3. -iksi- -iksi-vat

Pronunciation[edit]

The final vowel of this morpheme may be omitted .

  • e̮лe̮issi ~ e̮лe̮is̄   (" (if) she was ")


Pronunciation of conditional suffix varies according to consonant gradation principles.

  1. -isi- , -izi- in most of the ( Western Votic ) dialects e.g. jättäizin (" (if) I would leave "), meneizimmä (" (if) we would go "), e̮лe̮iziD (" (if) you were ") X antaisi   (" (if) she would give ")
  2. -issi- , -izi- in some other dialects ( Lempola ) e.g.
    1. e̮лe̮izin (" (if) I was ") X e̮лe̮issi ~ e̮лe̮is̄   (" (if) she was ")
    2. pitäizin (" (if) I would hold ") X pitäis̄   (" (if) he would hold ")
    3. ehtīzin (" (if) I would manage ") X ehtīssi   (" (if) he would manage ")
  3. -issi- , -isi- in some other dialects ( Eastern Votic ) e.g.
    1. antaisimma (" (if) we would give ") X antaissi   (" (if) she would give ")


The conditional morpheme -iksi- may be doubled > -iseiksi- (after a long vowel with primary stress). Notice, that vowel alternates with e according to vowel harmony rules. E.g.

  1. sā-iksi-n > saise̮izin (" (if) I would get "), jō-iksi-t > je̮ise̮iziD (" (if) you would drink "), lȫ-iksi-mmak > leiseizimmä (" (if) we would hit "), jǟ-iksi-ttak > iseizittä (" (if) you would stay ")
  2. Nevertheless it occurs with other stems too e.g. etti лe̮pe̮ttaisizivat ̮ se̮  ̨ ā (" that they should stop the war " Lempola ).


Phonological history [2][edit]

  1. The first part (-ise-) of doubled conditional morpheme is used by Finnic north-east i.e. Finnish , Karelian , Vepsian and Ingrian dialects . It may be related to protosami * -ńD́Ž́ potential.
  2. The second part (-ksi-) of doubled conditional morpheme is used by Finnic south-west i.e. Estonian , South Estonian and Livonian dialects . It may be related to protosami * -ktš conditional.


Morphophonology [edit]

The conditional morpheme takes a vowel stem e.g.

  1. makaissi ('would sleep' conditional ) ~ makā ('Sleep!' - singular) X magatkā ('Sleep!' - plural).
  2. pake̮nissi ('would flee' conditional ) ~ pake̮n ('Flee!' - singular) X page̮tkā ('Flee!' - plural).

Thus any verbal stem is always in the strong grade in conditional.

  • лuke̮issi ('would read' conditional ) ~ лuke̮a ('to read') ~ лuke̮assa ('Somebody reads.') ~ лuke̮gā ('Read!' - plural) X лuge̮G ('Read!' - singular)
  • vs. makaissi ('would sleep' conditional ) ~ makā ('Sleep!' - singular) X magatkā ('Sleep!' - plural) ~ magata ('to sleep') ~ magatassa ('Somebody sleeps.') [3]


Unlike i of imperfect tense, i of the conditional morpheme does not change quality of preceding short vowels.

  • E.g. + -i- > e̮i: лugmma ('We read.') > лukissi ('would read' conditional ).


Dialectal alternatives[edit]


Other Finnic dialects [4][edit]

The first person of singular

The first person of plural

The second person of singular

The second person of plural

The third person of singular

The third person of plural

Negative conditional [5][edit]

Person

Singular

Plural

1. eni -iksik emmak -iksik
2. eti -iksik ettak -iksik
3. epi -iksik evat -iksik

Negative expressions are made of an auxiliary negation verb followed by a main verb.

  • The negation verb has the following indicative and conditional forms according to the number and person of the subject: eni, emmak, eti, ettak, epi, evat.
  • The main verb is represented by it's third person of singular i.e. conditional without additional personal endings e.g. en лauлoiz (" (if) I would not sing "), eväd лauлoiz (" (if) they would not sing ").

The negation verb will be conjugated in various moods. See other negation lessons about this matter.


Other Finnic dialects [6][edit]

The first person of singular

The first person of plural

The second person of singular

The second person of plural

The third person of singular

The third person of plural


Indefinite voice [7][edit]

Mood

Negation verb

Main verb ending

Conditional -ttaiksi
Conditional negation epi -ttaiksik


Morphophonology [edit]

  • The vowel a alternates with ä according to vowel harmony rules.
    • pan+taiksi > pantaissi ('Somebody would put.' )
    • pes+taiksi > pestäissi ('Somebody would wash.' )


Indefinite voice suffixes take a consonant stem if available.

Verbal stem is therefore always in the weak grade.

  • лuge̮-ttaissi ('Somebody would read') X лuke̮kā ('Read!' - plural imperative)
  • vs. magat-taissi ('Somebody would sleep') X makā ('Sleep!' - singular imperative) ~ magatkā ('Sleep!' - plural) [8].


t component of indefinite voice suffixes stays geminated only after unstressed vowels e.g. tako+ttaiksi > tagottaissi ('Somebody would beat.').

  •   ̄ + ttaiksi > taiksi: e.g. sā-taissi ('Somebody would get.') < sā-ttaiksi.
  • t + ttaiksi > ttaiksi: e.g. tšiuzat-taissi ('Somebody would molest.') < tšiusat-ttaiksi.
  • h + ttaiksi > htaiksi: e.g. teh-täissi ('Somebody would make.') < teh-ttaiksi.
  • s + ttaiksi > staiksi: e.g. pes-täissi ('Somebody would wash.') < pes-ttaiksi.
  • л + ttaiksi > лtaiksi: e.g. tuл-taissi ('Somebody would come.') < tuл-ttaiksi
  • l + ttaiksi > ltaiksi: e.g. pidel-täissi ('Somebody would hold.') < pitel-ttaiksi
  • r + ttaiksi > rtaiksi: e.g. sur-taissi ('Somebody would die.') < sur-ttaiksi.
  • n + ttaiksi (after primary stress) > ntaiksi: e.g. pan-taissi ('Somebody would put.') < pan-ttaiksi.
    • n + ttaiksi (elsewhere) > ttaiksi: e.g. apat-taissi ('Somebody would acidify.') < appan-ttaiksi.


In front of any indefinite voice marker (except present tense indefinite voice) the stem-vowel a alternates with and ä alternates with e e.g. ve̮tta+ttaiksi > ve̮tttaissi ('Somebody would take.'), leütä+ttaiksi > levvettäissi ('Somebody would find.').


The final vowel of this morpheme is often omitted depending in it's position in a sentence .

  • ve̮te̮ttaissi ~ ve̮te̮ttai ~ ve̮te̮ttais   ("Somebody would take.")


Dialectal alternatives[edit]

Dialectal alternatives of the negation verb epi were described in the lesson about present tense negation e.g. ep tuлtaissi vs. ei tultas ('Nobody would come.') .


ss of the suffix may be degeminated in some dialects e.g. ve̮tta+ttaiksi > ve̮te̮ttaisi ~ ve̮te̮ttais ('Somebody would take.'), iho+ttaiksi > ihottaisi ('Somebody would grind.'), anta+ttaiksi > anne̮ttaisi ('Somebody would give.').


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 80
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.154
  3. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.175
  4. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.149, 163-181
  5. Tsvetkov, Dmitri: Vadja keele grammatika. Tallinn, 2008. p.75
  6. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.158, 163-181
  7. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 83 - 108
  8. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.173 etc.
  9. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 90

See also[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png Search for Votian/Conditional on Wikipedia.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Search Wikiquote for quotations related to: Votian/Conditional
Wikibooks-logo.svg Wikibooks has more on the topic of Votian/Conditional.
Wiktionary-logo.svg Look up Votian/Conditional in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikinews-logo.svg Search Wikinews for news items related to Votian/Conditional.
Wikispecies-logo.svg Wikispecies has information related to: Votian/Conditional