Votian/Comitative

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Comitative[edit]

Postposition [1][edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Comitative marker

-n kan' -in kan'


Phonological history and morphophonology [edit]

Many linguists of the 19. and 20. century interpreted this kind of comitative as a postposition rather than a case. [4]


Pronunciation[edit]

  • The comitative suffix is pronounced -kā . It does not vary according to vowel harmony e.g. ope̮ze̮-n kan' > ope̮zē̮kā ('with a horse' singular comitative ), tüttäre-n kan' > tüttärēkā ('with a daughter' singular comitative ), tüttäre-in kan' > tüttärīkā ('with daughters' plural comitative )
  • The final vowel of comitative suffixes may be shortened or even omitted depending in it's position in a sentence e.g. tanttsi   m o r o z o v ā   poigāk   (" She danced with Morozova's son. " Mati dialect), te̮in-te̮izē̮G   (" with each-others " Kõrvõttula dialect), menim̄   izä̀ nīttämǟ   (" We went to mow with our father. "), tappe̮li karù   (" He fought against a bear. " Jõgõperä dialect).


Agreement [edit]

  • Unlike in most of the other cases in comitative there is no agreement between adjectives and nouns in case, but a noun follows an adjective in genitive e.g. kaĺaska kaunī rattaikā (' a coach with red wheels ').
    • There may be poetic exceptions e.g. mesizī mēlī (' with honeyed minds ').


Usage[edit]

Comitative may express

  1. time - e.g. miä e̮лe̮n üö-päivɛ̆ä̀kā karjuššin̄   (' I'm tending a cattle the whole day and night long .' Lempola dialect)
  2. being together with somebody - e.g. eli izǟkā ja emǟkā (' She lived with her father and mother .'), nämäd ̮ menivät ̮ poigākā (' They went with their son .' Lempola dialect), tšenēkā siä isud ̮ rinnā ? (' Whom are you sitting next to? '), jutte̮li tüttärikkoikā (' He was speaking with girls. '), e̮lin lehmīkā karjaza (' I was tending cows. ')
  3. being equipped with something - e.g. verēkā varvaz (' bleeding toe'), e̮unappū e̮une̮ikā (' an appletree with apples '), seittsemē paikākā (' with seven patches '), kaĺaska kaunī rattaikā (' a coach with red wheels '), mikä pǟkā on? (' What's wrong with your head? '), tuli vaĺeŋkoikā rihēsē (' He came in (to a chamber) felt boots on. ')
  4. a mean to do something with (Comitative is used in this sence more often than adessive .) - e.g. taллaz ̮ jaлgākā (' She treaded (? a spinning-wheel) with her foot .'), rikke̮   ke̮ik̄   pād ̮ ope̮zē̮kā (' He broke all the pots with his horse .'), se̮ve̮ttī üvī ke̮ikē̮kā (' He dressed her well with everything. '), ke̮re̮tākā paŋge̮t ̮ pihaллa (' (She holds) buckets on her shoulders with a yoke. ')
  5. a way to do something (Used instead of essive influenced by Russian.) - e.g. e̮limma tȫzä artelīkā (' We were working in a crowd .')


Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Kukkuzi dialect
    • Pronunciation of comitative suffix varies according to vowel harmony -kā, -kǟ e.g. лahsē ('with a child' singular comitative ), lehmǟ ('with a cow' singular comitative ).


Suffix [5][edit]

 

Singular

Plural

Comitative marker

-na'n -ina'n


Phonological history[edit]

The morpheme na'n is probably composed of instructive component -n + 3. person's singular hen. It has a counterpart in Finnish , Karelian and even in Mordvinic -ńek . [6] [7]


Pronunciation[edit]

  • Pronunciation of this comitative suffix varies according to vowel harmony -nā, -nǟ e.g. ke̮ikke̮-ina'n > ke̮ikki ("generally, everyone"), pe̮лve̮-ina'n > pe̮лvi ("on knees"), naisi-ina'n > naisi ("with wives"), ke̮ik̄   te̮ize̮t perei- tuллas̄   ("All the others come with their families.")
  • The final vowel of comitative suffixes may be shortened depending in it's position in a sentence " -nà, -nä̀ ".


Usage[edit]

Suffixal comitative may express

  1. being together with somebody - e.g. tuлe̮mma poigad ̮ naisinā (' We sons shall come with our wives .'), ke̮ik̄   te̮ize̮t pereinǟ tuллas̄   ("All the others come with their families."), te̮mpazin pū jūri-nā (' I pulled a tree out with its roots. ')
  2. a mean to do something with - e.g. miä ve̮tan tšäsinǟ ("I'll take with my hands."), лutisap ̮ se̮rminā (' He squeezes with his fingers .')
  3. a way to do something - e.g. ne̮isivat ̮ pe̮лvinā (' They kneeled down .'), e̮hsinā päivinǟ tōmma pū kotōsē̮ ("We shall bring the tree home with all the twigs and everything.")
  4. number - e.g. ühsinǟ ~ ühsnǟ   ("alone") [8]
  5. Prolative has been preserved in some adverbs - e.g. tšäsi (" (made) by hands " ), se̮rmi (" (made) by fingers " ), pe̮лvi (" on (ones) knees " ),


Dialectal alternatives[edit]

  • Votic of Ingria
    • Western
      • Vaipooli
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • The vowel of abessive suffix may be -ē, -ē̮   like in Ingrian [9].
            • e.g. te̮mpe̮z ̮ jūri-nē̮ ( " extracted with roots "), perè-nè i poiki-kà ( " with family and sons ")


References[edit]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 38
  2. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.110
  3. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 38
  4. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 39
  5. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 42, 115
  6. Laanest, Arvo: Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse, Tallinn 1975. p.109
  7. Essive
  8. Essive
  9. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 42

See also[edit]

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