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Abessive [1][edit | edit source]




Abessive marker

-tta -itta

Pronunciation[edit | edit source]

  • Pronunciation of abessive suffixes varies according to vowel harmony e.g. iлmā leivä-ttä ('without bread' singular abessive ), iлmā minu-tta ('without me' singular abessive ), iлmā pillī-ttä ('musical instruments' plural abessive ), iлmā лahjoi-ttā ('musical instruments' plural abessive ).
  • The final vowel of abessive suffixes may be omitted depending in it's position in a sentence (especially in Jõgõperä and Mati dialect) e.g. jaлkoi-t̄   (" without legs "), arvàme̮-t̄   (" without guessing " Jõgõperä dialect).

Morphophonology[edit | edit source]

  • Singular abessive is usually in a grade opposite to singular nominative, caused by consonant gradation in stems e.g. leipä ('bread' singular nominative) vs. iлmā leivä-ttä ( singular abessive ).
  • A plural stem is usually in the strong grade, if there is such a grade available e.g. jaлkoi-t̄   (" leg " plural abessive) vs. jaлga-D (plural nominative) .

Usage[edit | edit source]

  1. Abessive expresses being without something and is used generally with a preposition iлmā - e.g. iлmā minutta siä et ̮ tunne̮ mennä ('You cannot find your way without me .'), jäin iлmā pillīttä (' I lost my (musical) instruments .'), tanttsi iлmā rivatta (' She danced barelegs (with no gaiters).')

Dialectal alternatives[edit | edit source]

  • Votic of Ingria
    • Eastern Votic dialect
      • The suffix has an additional k .
        • leivä-ttäG ('without bread' singular abessive ), minu-ttaG ('without me' singular abessive )
    • Western
      • Valley dialect:
        • tt of the suffix may be degeminated e.g. Mati dialect iлmā leivä-tä ('without bread' singular abessive ), puhassama-ta ('without bread' singular abessive ).
      • Vaipooli
        • Jõgõperä dialect
          • The vowel of abessive suffix may be -e, -e̮ .
            • e.g. tšäe-tte ( "without a hand" singular abessive ), raha-tte̮ ( " without money" singular abessive )

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Ariste, Paul Vadja keele grammatika. Tartu, 1948. p. 38

See also[edit | edit source]

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