Toxins as PD cause/Dieldrin
Dieldrin is an insecticide which was invented in the 1940s. However once it is used it is persistent and seems to gain in toxicity as it passes up through the food chain. It has been linked to a number of diseases in humans and, as a result, it has been banned in many countries.
Uversky et al  showed that pesticides including Dieldrin were responsible for the formation of alpha-synuclein fibrils in dopaminergic neurons.
Kanthasamy et al  produced evidence linking Dieldrin to the onset of Parkinson’s Disease.
Richardson et al  established the toxicity of Dieldrin to dopaminergic neurons. Their conclusions state:-
"These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life."
Hatcher et al  demonstrated that dopaminergic neurons (in mice) were severely damaged by Dieldrin.
PAN Pesticides Database. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33416
Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kitazawa, Masashi; Yang, Yonglie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; and Kanthasamy, Arthi. (2008) Mol. Brain 1. 12.
Environmental neurotoxin dieldrin induces apoptosis via caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta): Implications for neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.
Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Kroll.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S. and Denslow, Nancy D. (2010) Toxicol. Sci. 117 (1) 190-199
Genomic and Proteomic Responses to Environmentally Relevant Exposures to Dieldrin: Indicators of Neurodegeneration?
|Search the scientific literature (Dieldrin)|
- Cadmium - Copper - Dieldrin - Manganese - Maneb - Mercury - MPTP - n-Hexane - Paraquat - Rotenone - Toluene - Trichloroethylene - Ziram
- Uversky, V.N.; Li, J. and Fink . (2001) FEBS. LET 500 (3) 105-108. Pesticides directly accelerate the rate of alpha-synuclein fibril formation: a possible factor in Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11445065
- Kanthasamy, A.G.; Kitazawa, M.; Kanthasamy, A. and Anantharam, V. Neurotoxicology.(2005) 26(4):701-19. Dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity: relevance to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16112328
- Richardson, J.R. Caudle, WM.; Wang, M.; Dean, E.D.; Pennell KD. and Miller; G.W. (2006) FASEB J. 20(10):1695-7. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809432
- Hatcher, Jaime M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guilot, Thomas S.; McCormack, Alison L. and Di Monte, Donato. (2007) Exp. Neurol. 204(2): 619–630. Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1896133/pdf/nihms21643.pdf?tool=pmcentrez