Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Causes/Toxins/Toluene

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Background[edit | edit source]

Toluene is a benzene derivative with the chemical formula C6H5CH3. It is used in the manufacture of solvents, paint thinners, lacquers, sealants, printing inks, fuel additives and adhesives. It is a colourless liquid with a distinctive smell. It is the subject of solvent abuse as repeated inhalation induces a euphoric, dissociative state. [1]

Research[edit | edit source]


Hageman et al [2] presented the results of an evaluation of 3 patients who had had sustained exposure to solvents including toluene. They had developed Parkinson symptoms but were unresponsive to levodopa.


Aydin et al [3] carried out MRI scans of 41 patients who had chronically abused solvents – including toluene. They noted significant permanent damage to parts of the brain including the basal ganglia. Some of the patients were showing signs of Parkinson’s Disease.


Pals et al (2003) [4] examined the records of 423 Belgian P.D. patients and found clusters corresponding to their degree of exposure to zinc and toluene.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]


Eisenberg, Daniel P. 150 Quart. J. Biol. Med. 19 150—159.

Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse]


Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Toluene.

This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.

Pubmed (abstracts)

Pubmed_Central (Full_Text)


Related Pages[edit | edit source]

Causes > Toxins

Sub Pages:

Cadmium - Copper - Dieldrin - Manganese - Maneb - Mercury - MPTP - n-Hexane - Paraquat - Rotenone - Toluene - Trichloroethylene - Ziram

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Devathasan, G.; Low, D.; Teoh, P.C.; Wan, S.H. and Wong, P.K. (1984). Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 14 (1): 39–43 "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". PMID 6087782.
  2. Hageman G.; van der Hoek, J.; van Hout, M.; van der Laan, G.; Steur, E.J.; de Bruin, W. and Herholz; K. (1999) J Neurol. 246(3):198-206. Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, polyneuropathy, and cognitive decline after long-term occupational solvent exposure.
  3. Kubilay Aydin, Kubilay Sencer, Serra; Demir, Turkay; Ogel, Kultekin; Tunaci, Atadan and Minareci, Ozenc (2002) American Journal of Neuroradiology 23:1173-1179, Cranial MR Findings in Chronic Toluene Abuse by Inhalation
  4. Pals, P.; Van Everbroeck, B.; Grubben B.; Viaene M.K.; Dom, R.; van der Linden, C.; Santens, P.; Martin, J.J. and Cras, P.(2003) Eur J Epidemiol. 18(12):1133-42. Case-control study of environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease in Belgium.