Principles of Management
Management principles are guidelines for the decisions and actions of managers.
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
The Principles of Management are the essential, underlying factors that form the foundations of successful management. According to Henri Fayol in his book General and Industrial Management (1916), there are fourteen 'Principles of Management'.
- Division of Work - According to this principle the whole work is divided into small tasks.The specialization of the workforce according to the skills of a person , creating specific personal and professional development within the labour force and therefore increasing productivity; leads to specialization which increases the efficiency of labour.
- Authority and Responsibility - This is the issue of commands followed by responsibility for their consequences. Authority means the right of a superior to give enhance order to his subordinates; responsibility means obligation for performance.
- Discipline - It is obedience, proper conduct in relation to others, respect of authority, etc. It is essential for the smooth functioning of all organizations.
- Unity of Command - This principle states that each subordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one superior. If an employee receives orders from more than one superior, it is likely to create confusion and conflict.
- Unity of Direction - All related activities should be put under one group, there should be one plan of action for them, and they should be under the control of one manager.
- Subordination of Individual Interest to Mutual Interest - The management must put aside personal considerations and put company objectives firstly. Therefore the interests of goals of the organization must prevail over the personal interests of individuals.
- Remuneration - Workers must be paid sufficiently as this is a chief motivation of employees and therefore greatly influences productivity. The quantum and methods of remuneration payable should be fair, reasonable and rewarding of effort.
- The Degree of Centralization - The amount of power wielded with the central management depends on company size. Centralization implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management.
- Line of Authority/Scalar Chain - This refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank. The principle suggests that there should be a clear line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers at all levels.
- Order - Social order ensures the fluid operation of a company through authoritative procedure. Material order ensures safety and efficiency in the workplace. Order should be acceptable and under the rules of the company.
- Equity - Employees must be treated kindly, and justice must be enacted to ensure a just workplace. Managers should be fair and impartial when dealing with employees, giving equal attention towards all employees.
- Stability of Tenure of Personnel - Stability of tenure of personnel is a principle stating that in order for an organization to run smoothly, personnel (especially managerial personnel) must not frequently enter and exit the organization.
- Initiative - Using the initiative of employees can add strength and new ideas to an organization. Initiative on the part of employees is a source of strength for organization because it provides new and better ideas. Employees are likely to take greater interest in the functioning of the organization.
- Esprit de Corps/Team Spirit - This refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in the workplace; individually and communally. Team spirit helps develop an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding. Team spirit helps to finish the task on time.
Fayol also divided the management function into five key roles:
- To organize/Organizing
- To plan and forecast/Planning (Prevoyance)
- To command/Commanding, Leading
- To control/Controlling
- To coordinate/Coordinating
- Portal:Master of Business Administration
- Portal:International Business
- Wikipedia: Management
- Wikipedia: Fayolism
- Lumen Learning: Principles of Management Open Course
- Administration Industrielle et Général, Henri Fayol, 1917
- University of Minnesota: Open Textbook Library - Principles of Management