Key figures[edit | edit source]
- Jabbar Manaf oglu Mammadov. (Prof.) - Founder of the school
- Mamedov Museib (Prof.)
- Kazimov Gazanfar (Prof.)
- Akhundov Agamusa (Prof.)
- Jafarov Nizami (Prof.)
- Mirzoev Ghassan (Prof.)
- Abbasov Ali (Prof.)
Key Features[edit | edit source]
Allocate content and expressive plan in language. The content plan of language is considered a static, unchanging over time, that is located outside the continuum of space and time, out of diachronic and synchronic, the same for all, that is common to all mankind, invariant, that is not dependent on national and gender differences, related to the structure thinking of mankind, potentially existing in the minds of every individual. National languages were formed from this common root, each in its own deciding some grammatical, morphological, lexical problems of expression (on an unconscious level). Depending on the history, geography, life, needs, etc., of every nation, in terms of expression revealed the different parts of a content plan for each national language of the more developed its separate parts.
Expressive is often seen as just a shell of a content plan, the projection patterns of brain activity in the social sphere. And not the language itself but the very part of it is developing and changing completely. Despite the fact that the language of deterministic scheme of thinking of the brain, its manifestation of that is expressive plan, subject to strong influence of social factors and is regulated by them: over time, the language flows (pepper) all of the history, philosophy, life, traditions, and so on . people-carrier, adding to the skeleton of many strokes and, thus, forming individual national languages and to obtain such a range of world languages, and each of them possesses its own unique morphology. Content same plan language for all this remains the same among all the peoples of the world.
The syntax is not reckoned in the traditional sense, when it is defined as an area of grammar studying the sentence, followed by a number of linguists XIX-XX centuries - as part of grammar which studies a substantial level of language, and contrasting morphology and phonetics, studying expressive plan language.
Shares the parts of speech to: syntactic and non-syntactic. The first group includes the independent ones, and the second - all other parts of speech. After that, excludes a number of independent parts of speech, pronouns and adverbs, based on the following considerations:
- Pronoun independence is denied, believing that relations between pronouns with other parts of speech are not equal and mutually exclusive, since the properties of pronouns overlap with other parts of speech, as their subset. But this contradicts the second law "the division of logic" (which reads: "Members of the division should be mutually exclusive, which means that they should not overlap"). The division of all the major parts of speech, first in general and particular, and then to abstract the specific types shows that the place of abstract general form of each part of speech is empty. The conclusion is that both times, it is the pronoun which science traditionally (by historical inertia or under the influence of authority of the ancient schools) separated from the other parts of speech, together in one class, calling it a pronoun. Based on this logic, the school sees fit to distribute it on other parts of speech.
- The adverb, however, is considered just a derivative, rather adverbizing version of the other parts of speech. More precisely, it is considered that it comes out of other parts of speech, when speaking them as a means of expressing status. In this case, they are automatically transformed into an adverb. Therefore it is considered it appropriate to replace it adverbizing options other parts of speech.
In total, for the independent (main) 4 parts of speech takes part only: noun, adjective, numeral, and verb.
Opposed to isolating members of the sentences from the parts of speech: I believe that there are no isolated, out of touch with each other parts of speech and of the sentence - the four parts of speech serve only as a means of expression of the sentence and the sentence are expressed only in parts of speech.
Conversion: Consider conversion is not an act inter-operational parts of speech, and performance of them as a means of expression of members of the sentences.
Methodology[edit | edit source]
In analyzing the language of the school uses the tools of the following areas of knowledge:
- From Psychology — it takes "Functional asymmetry of the hemispheres of the brain";
- From Logic — it takes the laws of division;
- From Philosophy — it takes the fact that the actions that the school had four main parts of speech are the linguistic equivalent of an ontology of categories, such as:
And the philosopher and linguist observe the same objects. But each of them calls them in his own way.
The main contribution (significance)[edit | edit source]
As a result of these and other tests some content level of language system come forth (see diagram:
As it is known, the main goal of structural linguistics and all its sub -school was to find the system of language. Some experts believe that the resulting system is exactly the one that searched for and are looking to this day structuring and members of other linguistic and philosophical schools or, at least some part of the system. It is believed that this system - such as the "Periodic Table" for linguistics
Approach of different schools[edit | edit source]
Approach to "structural linguistics"[edit | edit source]
In contrast to the classical structural linguistics, this school does not consider the language of some conventional and arbitrary system, dependent on the speech, the existence of social life, the category of time and will speak, etc. She believes that the root of the tongue is kind of a priori static system located outside the category of time and specific national, and is derived from the patterns of brain activity. Despite the fact that the language of deterministic scheme of thinking of the brain, its display part, that is, expressive plan, subject to significant social impact and is regulated by them: in due course in language pepper history, philosophy, life, traditions, etc. of the people-carrier language, which forms the individual national languages.
Besides it is considered that language and speech (sound) are not different sides of one coin (or sheet), or a result of the existence of each other. It is not preceded by language and is not the only instrument the implementation language. Language not always has sound design and audio decoding. It can exist without speech, and as a shell language (Thus as a means for its implementation) can serve anything that can carry information, including all kinds of nonverbal communication.
Approach to "linguistic logicism"[edit | edit source]
In contrast, supporters of logicism, the school accepts, that the problem of "true-false", "inference", "proof" - "denial", etc. belong exclusively to logic, and form words and sentences, declination, gendering attributes, typology of languages, psychological and communicative aspects of language, the problems associated with the morphology, mode of expression of syntactic relations, reflected in the structure of supply extra-linguistic reality and so forth are only subject of Linguistics (including, in conjunction with other disciplines).
In contrast to the school "linguistic logicism" concept is not identified with the word, logical and linguistic subject-predicate with each other. That is, not approved by a strict parallelism between the word and concept, sentence and judgments.
There is a possibility for symbols in an expressive term of one and the same concepts or judgments - individual words, phrases, whole sentences or groups of symbols of non-verbal sphere. Or vice versa - is assumed that the same word, phrase, sentence or non-verbal code can be an expression of a single concept, or the whole judgments. Besides: according to the synonymy or homonymy (Thus, identical content or forms) of words, phrases or sentences, they can be an expression of different concept or proposition, or the same concept or proposition can be expressed by multiple synonyms, phrases, or sentences.
To the origin of language[edit | edit source]
Belief that speech does not precede language and is not the only instrument for language performance. Language can exist without speech, and nonverbal means can play the role of shell (medium) for language. Humans developed the verbal language form because other channels of communication are not so extensive or comfortable. Here natural selection favours the verbal channel. Despite the dominance of the visual channel in everyday human relations with the outside world, it is insufficiently reliable for individual security. Human vision apprehends at any given moment only a quarter of the visible environment, and is usable for only half of the time (i.e., during wakefulness). The efficiency of the visual channel is also limited by various adverse conditions such as smoke, fog, or any other obstacles.
The auditory canal activity is available for 24 hours in the range of 360 degrees in space. The only barrier for sound propagation is strong noise, which is a very atypical occurrence. Furthermore, in order to communicate with a person visually it is necessary that this person sees the communicator. On the other hand, the auditory canal is open around the clock for perception of information from all sides, from anyone, and without any special settings. All this contributed to the human verbal (oral) form of language development.
It is believed that the mechanism of modern sophisticated and overly-complicated human languages development is identical to the writing evolutionary mechanism. That is writing development experienced stages:
- Stage I: Grapheme = sentence (linguistics) (pictographic writing);
- Stage II: Grapheme = word or phrase (ideographic writing);
- Stage III: Grapheme = syllable (syllabic writing);
- Stage IV: Grapheme = sound (phonetic writing).
The same trajectory language has experienced and it evolved through stages:
- Stage I: Phoneme = sentence (linguistics) (pictographic language);
- Stage II: Phoneme = word or phrase (ideographic language);
- Stage III: Phoneme = syllable (syllabic language);
- Stage IV: Phoneme = sound (phonetic language).
Notes[edit | edit source]
- New system of linguistics
- Mammadov J.M., New system of language, thinkings and reality|Wikia:ru.AzLingSchool:Новая система языка, мышления и действительности#СИНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИЙ ПОДХОД К ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЮ ЯЗЫКА|New system of language, thinkings and reality. // "The Papers of independent Authors" (volume 14). Israel. 2010
- Mammadov J.M., Origin of language|Wikia:ru.AzLingSchool:File:Synergetic_approach.jpg|Origin of language. // Journal "Social sciences". Baku, № 1(21), 2005. Page 25 (russian)
- Kazimov Q.Sh., Language and History. Baku, 2004 // 
- Kazimov Q.Sh., Mamedov M.B., Azerbaijan Linguistic School. // Journal "Ucheba". 2007
- Gnatyuk R.V., Azerbaijan Linguistic School
- Ludmila Esipova, Syntax in schemes. // Novosibirsk, 2006.
- Original of this fragment in the Encyclopedia of Academician