Portal:Advanced General Studies/Image

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Warming climate exposed a vast continental shelf for humans to inhabit.

"Eighteen thousand years ago, the seas around northern Europe were some 400 feet lower than today. Britain was not an island but the uninhabited northwest corner of Europe, and between it and the rest of the continent stretched frozen tundra. As the world warmed and the ice receded, deer, aurochs, and wild boar headed northward and westward. The hunters followed. Coming off the uplands of what is now continental Europe, they found themselves in a vast, low-lying plain."[1]

"Doggerland is now believed to have been settled by Mesolithic people, probably in large numbers, until they were forced out of it thousands of years later by the relentlessly rising sea. A period of climatic and social upheaval ensued until, by the end of the Mesolithic, Europe had lost a substantial portion of its landmass and looked much as it does today."[1]

"Based on seismic survey data gathered mostly by oil companies prospecting under the North Sea, [...] the contours [...] translate into gently rolling hills, wooded valleys, lush marshes, and lagoons."[1]

"In addition to the human jawbone, [there are] accumulated more than a hundred other artifacts —animal bones showing signs of butchery and tools made from bone and antler, among them an ax decorated with a zigzag pattern. Because [there are] coordinates of these finds, and because objects on the seabed tend not to move far from where erosion liberates them, [...] many come from a specific area of the southern North Sea that the Dutch call De Stekels (the Spines), characterized by steep seabed ridges."[1]

"The most rapid rises of sea level were on the order of three to six feet a century, but because of the variable topography of the land, the flooding would not have been even. In areas as flat as modern-day East Anglia, a six-foot rise could have shifted the coast inland by miles; in hillier places, less. Down in low-lying Doggerland, the rising sea turned inland lakes into estuaries."[1]

“There would have been huge population shifts. People who were living out in what is now the North Sea would have been displaced very quickly.”[2]

Credit: William E. McNulty and Jerome N. Cookson, Simon Fitch and Vincent Gaffney, North Sea Palaeolandscapes Project.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Laura Spinney (December 2012). "Searching for Doggerland". National Geographic Magazine: 6. http://waughfamily.ca/Ancient/Doggerland%20-%20National%20Geographic.pdf. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 
  2. Clive Waddington (December 2012). "Searching for Doggerland". National Geographic Magazine: 6. http://waughfamily.ca/Ancient/Doggerland%20-%20National%20Geographic.pdf. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 

This image shows the interior of an ATX power supply. Credit: Alan Liefting.

The applications of power electronics include public utilities.

Advanced electronics is applied to the distribution of electrical power such as electricity.

John Pilger, Richard Gizbert, and Julian Assange are before the investigative press regarding The Wikileaks Files - Book Launch - Foyles, London - 29th September 2015. Credit: Walej.

Def. a "form of journalism in which the reporter deeply investigates a single topic of interest, often involving crime or corruption"[1] is called investigative journalism.

"Reporting, through one's own initiative and work product, matters of importance to readers, viewers, or listeners [is investigative journalism]."[2]

"An investigative journalist is a man or woman whose profession it is to discover the truth and to identify lapses from it in whatever media may be available. The act of doing this generally is called investigative journalism and is distinct from apparently similar work done by police, lawyers, auditors, and regulatory bodies in that it is not limited as to target, not legally founded and closely connected to publicity."[3]


  1. investigative journalism. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 1, 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/investigative_journalism. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  2. Steve Weinberg, The Reporter's Handbook: An Investigator's Guide to Documents and Techniques, St. Martin's Press, 1996
  3. Investigative Journalism: Context and Practice, Hugo de Burgh (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2000

This is the cover image from the new erotica e-book by Elizabeth Black. Credit: New Dawning Bookfair.

Def. literature "relating to or tending to arouse sexual desire or excitement"[1] is called erotic literature, or erotica.

The cover image is from the new erotica e-book by Elizabeth Black called "PURR a Puss 'n Boots Twisted Tale".


  1. Cammoore~enwiktionary (16 April 2015). erotic. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/erotic. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 

The image is of a sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus.

"Sperm whales have the largest brain of any animal (on average 17 pounds (7.8 kg) in mature males)".[1]

These sentient whales have the largest brains that have ever existed on Earth.

"Absolute size is the most general of all brain properties [...], and ranges in mammals from brains of small bats and insectivores (weighing less than 0.1 g) to those of large cetaceans (up to 9000 g)."[2]

Credit: Tim Cole, NMFS (NOAA).


  1. WF Perrin; B Wursig; JGM Thewissen (13 November 2013). Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus). NOAA. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/mammals/cetaceans/spermwhale.htm. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  2. Gerhard Roth; Ursula Dicke (May 2005). "Evolution of the brain and intelligence". Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5): 250-7. http://www.subjectpool.com/ed_teach/y3project/Roth2005_TICS_brain_size_and_intelligence.pdf. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 

Nominating or creating selected images

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