Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Motivation, optimism, and self/Instructor notes

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Instructor notes[edit]

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These are some instructor notes and tips about running this tutorial.

This tutorial was run in 2010 for this first time, with three tutorial groups, then with several groups in 2011, and 2013 to 2015.

Introduction[edit]

  1. Briefly outline the topics

Functionalist perspective on motivation[edit]

  1. Ask for main motivations for going to university (could be approach, could be avoidance)
  2. Are each of these I or E? (some are clear/less clear) (optional)
  3. Complete survey
  4. Explain Functionalist perspective (Clary & Snyder) e.g., in the context of volunteer motivations (e.g., Lifeline counseling, blood donation)
  5. Explain motivations and outcomes (match) ~ satisfaction
  6. Explain implications for organisational management (e.g., recruiting, training, management)

Learned optimism[edit]

  1. Introduce Martin Seligman
    1. learned helplessness (was challenged why 1/3 didn't learn helplessness) to learned optimism which breathed life into the positive psychology movement in the 1990s
  2. Take LOT (preferably online because the scoring is automatic - hand scoring is possible but somewhat cumbersome) - (search for Learned Optimism Test - Stanford University link)
  3. Hand scoring is somewhat complex and will take approx. 10 mins. The dimensions and their scoring are:[1]
    1. Permanence (Temporary vs. Permanent): e.g., for pessimism - bad events are permanent and good events are temporary (opposite for optimism)
      1. PmB (Permanent Bad - 5, 13, 20, 21, 29, 33, 42, 46) - low scores = optimistic, high scores = pessimistic
      2. PmG (Permanent Good - 2, 10, 14, 15, 24, 26, 38, 40) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    2. Pervasiveness (Specific vs. Universal - across time and space (situation)):
      1. PvB (Pervasive Bad - 8, 16, 17, 18, 22, 32, 44, 48) - low scores = optimistic, high scores = pessimistic
      2. PvG (Pervasive Good - 6, 7, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 43) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    3. Hope (HoB) = PvB + PmB (Hope for Bad Events) - low scores (0, 1, or 2) are hopeful and high scores (12, 13, 14, 15 or 16) are hopeless. Seligman indicates that this is the single most important score.
    4. Personalisation (Internal vs. External - locus of causality)
      1. PsB (Personalisation Bad - 3, 9, 19, 25, 30, 39, 41, 47) - low scores = high self-esteem, high scores = low self-esteem
      2. PsG (Personalisation Good - 1, 4, 11, 12, 23, 27, 36, 45) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    5. Total B (Bad) = PmB + PvB + PsB
      1. 3 to 6 = Marvellously optimistic
      2. 6 to 9 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 10 to 11 = Average
      4. 12 to 14 = Moderately pessimistic
      5. 14 + = Cries out for change
    6. Total G (Good) = PmG + PvG + PsG
      1. 19 + = Very optimistic
      2. 17 to 18 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 14 to 16 = Average
      4. 11 to 13 = Quite pessimistic
      5. 10 or less = Greatly pessimistic
    7. Overall Optimism = G - B
      1. 8 + = Very optimistic
      2. 6 to 7 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 3 to 5 = Average
      4. 1 or 2 = Moderately pessimistic
      5. 0 or below = Very pessimistic
  4. Discuss the three dimensions (Permanence, Pervasiveness, Personalisation), as well as Hope and overall Optimism/Pessimism
  5. Note: Demphasise the Seligman suggested interpretations of the scale scores as in our experience respondents feel that their scores are considerably more pessimistic than how they see actually see themselves and others. Almost all students completing the LOT indicate that their score suggests that they are much more pessimistic than they believe themselves to be. There may be a problem with the calibration of the interpretation scale - and an apparent lack of normative data? Suggest interpreting scores in terms of comparison with peers rather against the suggested benchmarks.

Self-constructs[edit]

  1. Brainstorms, group, discuss, and distinguish amongst self-constructs. The most commonly mentioned include:
    1. Self-actualisation
    2. Self-awareness
    3. Self-confidence (combination of self-esteem and self-efficacy)
    4. Self-efficacy, self-doubt
    5. Self-esteem, self-worth
    6. Self-regulation
    7. Self-sabotage, self-harm, self-handicapping

Self-tracking[edit]

  1. Watch video
  2. Discuss examples of self-tracking that people are engaged in and the pros, cons, potentials for enhanced self-regulation

Database searching[edit]

  1. Poll who uses what databases
  2. Demonstrate use of Google Scholar including searching, identification of top references, related topic searching, author searching, citation searching, and linking to specific library searches

Possible ideas not used[edit]

  1. Goals (not currently covered)
  2. Feedback (not currently covered) e.g., article summary and discussion of The power of feedback (Hattie & Timberley, 2007)
  3. LEQ