Motivation and emotion/Book/2020/Opioid use disorder
What is opioid use disorder and how can it be treated?
Overview[edit | edit source]
- What are Opioids?
- What is Opioid Use Disorder?
- What current treatment plans exist to treat Opioid Use Disorder?
- What challenges are faced before, during and after treatment?
What is Opioid Use Disorder?[edit | edit source]
- react to receptors in the brain to reduce pain. Other side effects can include drowsiness, feelings of euphoria, confusion.
- Primary use in post operative care, palliative care, acute pain recovery and end of life respite
- Can be natural or synthetic
- Types of Opioids include:
- oxycodone (OxyContin®)
- hydrocodone (Vicodin®),
- High dosages can be fatal as opioids cause respiratory issues
- Synthetic Opioids accounted for the deaths of 30,000 Americans in 2017
Definition of Opioid Use Disorder, its prevalence, history and effect - https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction/opioid-use-disorder/opioid-use-disorder
- Opioids are highly addictive, with dependence occurring within 4-8 weeks
- DSM-V defines Opioid Use disorder by the following symptoms
- Taking larger amounts or taking drugs over a longer period than intended
- Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use
- Spending a great deal of time obtaining or using the opioid or recovering from its effects
- Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use opioids
- Problems fulfilling obligations at work, school or home.
- Continued opioid use despite having recurring social or interpersonal problems.
- Giving up or reducing activities because of opioid use.
- Using opioids in physically hazardous situations.
- Continued opioid use despite ongoing physical or psychological problem likely to have been caused or worsened by opioids.
- Tolerance (i.e., need for increased amounts or diminished effect with continued use of the same amount)
- Experiencing withdrawal (opioid withdrawal syndrome) or taking opioids (or a closely related substance) to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.
How can it be treated?[edit | edit source]
Current methods of treatment and areas of future study - Motivation
- MAT - Medication-assisted Treatment
- Combines behavioral therapy with medication - medication can assist in both the relieving withdrawals and assisting healthy brain chemistry
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapies
- Contingency management
- Motivational Interviewing
What Challenges are there in treating Opioid Use Disorder?[edit | edit source]
Challenges in treatment -
- 1 in 4 have access to MAT
- recovery requires long term support
- access to medication and treatment
- access to support services
Conclusion[edit | edit source]
- What is Opioid Use Disorder?
- How is it effectively treated (based on psychological theory and research)?
- What more can be done?
See also[edit | edit source]
- Addiction (Wikipedia)
- Evidence-based assessment/Substance use disorder (disorder portfolio)
- Opioid system and human emotion (Book chapter, 2019)
- Opioid use disorder (Wikipedia)
References[edit | edit source]
Pius, A. K., Jones, E., Bonnell, L. N., Fujii, M. H., & MacLean, C. D. (2020). Patients' experience with opioid pain medication after discharge from surgery: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Surgical Research, 256, 328-337. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.026
Varisco, T., Shen, C., & Thornton, D. (2020). Chronic prescription opioid use predicts stabilization on buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 117 doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108073
American Psychiatric Association. (2018). Opioid Use Disorder. Retrieved from American Psychiatric Association: https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction/opioid-use-disorder/opioid-use-disorder
[edit | edit source]
Mike Davis: What causes Opioid Addiction, and why is it so tough to combat? (TED ideas worth spreading)