Motivation and emotion/Book/2020/COVID-19 pandemic impacts on motivation and emotion

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COVID-19 impacts on motivation and emotion:
How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted on human motivation and emotion?

Overview[edit | edit source]

Figure 1: Image showing what COVID is[awkward expression?]

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by a new strain of the coronavirus, similar to that of the SARS virus[factual?]. The world wide Pandemic effected[grammar?] the world for the most of 2020 year[factual?]. During this time parts of the world went into enforced lockdown, [grammar?] some outcomes of the pandemic were;

- Travel bands[spelling?] - world wide travel bands were put in place, with International travel stopped, almost completely and domestic travel was limited (in Australia, the boarders were close, so people were not able to travel from state to state without a permit.

- Work from Home arrangements were put in place by Companies with the ability to do so, this was a good way to keep people in work while shut downs happened.[factual?]

- Increased Unemployment rate (5.3% - 2019: 7.4% - June 2020)[factual?]

- Curfews, curfews were put in place around the world an example was the Victoria Australia curfew, in August 2020 - where people had to be at home by 8pm and we're not able to go out until 5am.[factual?]

- Social Distancing was arguably the most common, world wide, protocol that was put in place to protect against cover-19 - this describes the act of keeping 1.5 meters between each human (no hugging, hand shaking etc).[factual?]

- complete closure of bars, pubs, gyms and community centres (and more), many businesses did not recover from this shut down and ended up closing for good. [factual?]

These outcomes, obviously had an effect on individuals ideologies of "connectedness" and "togetherness", businesses questioned the productivity of work from home arrangements, and the Government showed a genuine concern for the mental health of those in minority groups, that would be feeling isolated during this time.[factual?]

Focus questions:

  • What is COVID-19[Not directly related to the topic of this chapter], and how was it handled?
  • What impacts (positive and Negative) did COVID-19 have?[vague]

Psychological affects[grammar?] of Covid-19[edit | edit source]

Mental health during such a time of uncertainty is normal[say what?], and governments all over the world braced for the effects that world wide isolation would have on mental health.[factual?]

Lifeline - Suicide[edit | edit source]

In Australia - In March, only 3 months into the Covid-19 out break in Australia, Lifeline, one of australia's suicide prevention hotlines, answered almost 90,000 calls for help, they reported an increase of 25% when compared with march 2019. Receiving a call every 30 seconds is what sparked the need for the Life Line emergency appeal "you have 30 seconds to have a life".[1].

A study published in Translational Psychiatry investigated the effect of Covid-19 on people[grammar?] mental states. The study developed a brief resilience survey probing self-reliance, emotion-regulation, interpersonal-relationship patterns and neighborhood-environment, and applied it online during an acute COVID-19 outbreak. The study captured a unique snapshot for over 3,000 people who were in stressful conditions during the acute pandemic outbreak (>92% of the sample were from the US or Israel that were in lockdown). Participants reported significantly more subjective worries (stress). This pattern was consistent across genders, throughout the lifespan and was overall similar in healthcare providers compared to non-healthcare providers. This reported COVID-19-related worries were associated with substantial levels of anxiety (22%) and depression, as reported in the study[grammar?][awkward expression?].

A different study's results suggested that the rates of reportable depression symptoms were three times higher during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic[factual?][sample? method?]. "Undoubtedly, there are many factors contributing to this increase in mood symptoms, including increased social isolation, economic hardships, and exposure to other stressors"[1] - this same study found among participants there were fewer people with no symptoms of depression and more people with more symptoms during COVID-19 than before COVID-19. It also found that certain groups were at greater risk of depression symptoms, such as lower income groups and those that have less than $5,000 in household savings. They had a 50 percent greater risk of depression symptoms than those of higher income.[2]

1800 respect - Domestic Violence[edit | edit source]

Research has found that there is often a spike in violence against women during major crises and disasters – which have many similar features to the current situation with the devastating spread of COVID-19[factual?].

Situations of heightened stress and panic, potential family disruption, social isolation, increased financial pressures, and disruption to people’s usual roles can all compound or exacerbate the underlying conditions that lead to violence[factual?].

This is often reflected in the increased demand for domestic violence crisis services at such times[factual?].

Australia has been no different through out[grammar?] the pandemic, with reports of increased calls to domestic violence helplines including an 11% increase in calls to 1800RESPECT and a 26% increase in calls to Mensline[factual?]. In addition, Google reported a 75% increase in internet searches relating to support for domestic violence. These reports are likely because of people socially isolating at home with their abusers are often unable to seek help[factual?].

Globally, in New Zealand, family violence (including child abuse and elder abuse) and sexual violence has been shown to escalate during and after large-scale disasters or crises (NZFVC, 2020). As communities have gone into lockdown to stop the spread of coronavirus, the mass efforts to save lives have put both women and men in abusive relationships at a higher risk of "exposure". A recent article published in The Guardian (2020) reported on how the surge of domestic violence cases is a pattern being repeated globally. Reporting from several different countries, the article high- lighted[grammar?] alarming figures, a rise of 40% or 50% in Brazil. In one region of Spain, the government claimed that calls to its helpline had risen by 20% in the first few days of the confinement period and in Cyprus, calls to a similar hotline went up 30% in the week after the country confirmed its first case of coronavirus. In the UK, Refuge, one of the leading domestic abuse organisations reported that calls to the UK Domestic Violence Helpline increased by 25% in the seven days following the announcement of tighter social distanc- ing[grammar?] and lockdown measures by the government.

Figures[edit | edit source]

  • Life line calls up 25%[factual?]
  • Google Searches related to domestic Violence 75%[factual?]
  • 11% increase to 1800 Respect[factual?]

'Red tape' forcing families to wait for compassionate exemption to coronavirus travel ban, grieving son says[edit | edit source]

One of the most notable things about Covid-19 restrictions is that they lead to a lot of people feeling isolated[factual?]. Many families were separated by the boarder[spelling?] restrictions. More than 20% of boarder[spelling?] permits were knocked back[factual?]. The difficulty that was posed with getting a boarder[spelling?] permit, made situations such as Chris's[who?], a lot more difficult.

Case study

When Chris Simpson's mother died, feelings of shock and grief were quickly taken over by stress and anxiety as he scrambled to get a flight to the United Kingdom amid COVID-19.

The Perth-based Australian citizen said, although his mother was 79 years old, she was "fit as a fiddle" and had sent him a video of her singing and dancing just days before she had a heart attack and died.

Mr Simpson has lived in Australia for 20 years, but has always taken comfort in knowing that if anything were to happen in his home country he could be there within 24 hours.

But when his mother died on March 30, he said it took two weeks before he had his travel exemption approved and he was forced to delay the funeral.

Due to COVID-19, an Australian citizen or permanent resident cannot leave the country without an exemption, which they can apply for online if they meet certain criteria, including compassionate grounds.

Quiz questions[edit | edit source]

Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

How many calls did LIFELINE receive during March 2020?

90
900
90,000
9


Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Through the Pandemic of Covid-19 there were many negative influences on mental health. There was an increase in Work place productivity[really?], unemployment, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, calls to help lines specifically Domestic violence[factual?]. Most researchers put these increases down to the restrictions of social distancing[factual?]. [grammar?]this meant that many people were isolated from their families, friends, and support net works.

Notably, there are many negative effects;[grammar?]

some of the positive affects of Covid-19 - are mentioned here;[grammar?]

  1. The Environment - Carbon emissions are down globally and with manufacturing and air travel grinding to a halt, the planet has had a chance to rejuvenate[factual?].
  2. Connectedness - sense of community and social cohesion. Self-isolation challenges us as social animals who desire relationships, contact and interaction with other humans[factual?].
  3. reimagined schooling/work - changing education at all levels. Home-schooling is becoming the new way of learning, exposing many parents to what their children know and do[factual?].

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Barzilay, R., Moore, T.M., Greenberg, D.M. et al. Resilience, COVID-19-related stress, anxiety and depression during the pandemic in a large population enriched for healthcare providers. Transl Psychiatry 10, 291 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00982-

Neil, J.Domestic violence and COVID 19, Australian Journal for General Practitioners, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACG) https://www1.racgp.org.au/ajgp/coronavirus/domestic-violence-and-covid-19 doi: 10.31128/AJGP-COVID-25

Shine, R. (2020, June 24). 'Confused, upset, crying': Grieving families face red tape securing travel ban exemption. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-06-25/coronavirus-travel-ban-exemption-red-tape-criticised/12388946

External links[edit | edit source]

[See tutorial 1 or other chapters for how to format this section]

  1. "Depression Symptoms 3 Times Higher During COVID-19 Lockdown". Healthline. 2020-09-10. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  2. "Depression Symptoms 3 Times Higher During COVID-19 Lockdown". Healthline. 2020-09-10. Retrieved 2020-10-18.