Motivation and emotion/Book/2017/Emotional resilience in space

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Emotional resilience in space:
What are the emotional resilience requirements for living in space and how can these be developed?
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Overview[edit]

Figure 1. Isolation in space can damage emotional resilience.
  • Living in space presents challenges. These include maintaining a healthy psychological outlook in the face of adversity, pressure, high risk, and isolation.
  • Examining how astronauts prevail through extreme conditions can provide guidance for many Earth-based scenarios.
  • This can be applied to specific situations with similarly high risk factors (such as military missions) or isolation factors (such as solitary confinement, remote exploration)
  • Suedfeld, P. (2005). Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine76(6), B61-B66. - History of space psychiatry

What is emotional resilience?[edit]

  • Define key terms - emotion, resilience, psychological resilience (or here for wikiversity psychological resilience page)
  • Measurement tools determine the return of cortisol (saliva, blood levels), to measure short term recovery from stress [reference].
  • Why do we care about this?

Emotional resilience (sometimes termed psychological resilience) describes a person's ability to recover from stressful experiences. In an individual, this might include self-efficacy, learned resourcefulness, sense of coherence, and can be measured across the lifespan (Van Breda, 2001). Rather than describing the ability to be unaffected by crisis or major life stressors, the focus of resilience is about the ability to “bounce back” from evens, processing feelings and emotions until affect returns to equilibrium (Schwartz,1997).  This concept can be described as salutogenesis, or the focus of coping with illness and transition to recovery, rather than a separation of the dichotomy of health and sickness (Antonovsky, 1979). 

The study of the field itself began as a shift away from a focus on pathology and abnormal psychology, looking towards coping mechanisms and recovery, in psychological and social work literature in the early 80's (Pearlin & Schooler, 1982). Resilience research often focuses on how people manage the impact of major life events such as natural disasters, or significant environmental stressors, such as being impounded in concentration camps (Perin and Schooler, 1982). Emotional resilience has not always been a focus for space programs. Historically, NASA considered it's astronauts to be well adjusted enough for psychological concerns to be a non-issue. As the space programs and their understanding of space flight grew, they accepted psychological stressors and their impacts as a part of space missions to be monitored and prevented as much as possible. With the rise of positive psychology and prominent resilience theories, and increasing amounts of data and analysis opportunities growing with the expansion of space programs and extending capacity for exploration, researchers now more than ever are attempting to enhance emotional resilience in astronauts through all stages of pre-, during and post-flight missions (Suedfeld, 2005).

What impacts emotional resilience in space?[edit]

Space is an extreme environment. There are many factors that contribute to the degradation of emotional resilience. According to Kanas and Manzey (2008), leaders in psychological and psychiatric space research, there are four categories of stressors that astronauts must face: physical, habitability, psychological, and interpersonal. These stressors appear to have a greater impact on astronauts that are in space for longer periods of time (Kanas et al., 2009). 

Physical stressors[edit]

Physical stressors can include;

  • rapid or extreme acceleration
  • microgravity (Liu et al, 2016)
  • circadian rhythm disruption, and subsequent fatigue (Liu et al., 2016, Caldwell, 2012)
  • ionizing radiation
  • meteoroid impacts

Psychological stressors[edit]

Psychological stressors can include;

  • isolation
  • confinement
  • danger
  • monotony
  • workload (either overwork or underwork)

Psychological stressors can lead to issues of performance, such as disorientation, visual illusions, attention deficits, error proneness and psychomotor problems . They may also lead to adjustment or somatoform disorders, depression and/or suicidal thought, and asthenia if stressors are not managed or mitigated (Kanas & Manzey, 2008).

Habitability stressors[edit]

Habitability stressors can include;

  • duration of mission (Liu et al, 2016)
  • vibration
  • ambient noise
  • temperature
  • lighting
  • air quality

Interpersonal stressors[edit]

Interpersonal stressors can include;

  • Interpersonal relationships (Endler, 2004). These might include tension, withdrawal, lack of privacy, scapegoating, or affect displacement (Kanas & Manzey, 2008).
  • gender issues
  • cultural effects
  • personality ocnflicts
  • crew size
  • leadership

How can emotional resilience in space be developed?[edit]

Developing emotional resilience on Earth[edit]

  • What do we do currently to boost ER?
    • Meredith, L. S., Sherbourne, C. D., Gaillot, S. J., Hansell, L., Ritschard, H. V., Parker, A. M., & Wrenn, G. (2011). Promoting psychological resilience in the US military. Rand health quarterly1(2).
    • Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2007). Regulation of positive emotions: Emotion regulation strategies that promote resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies8(3), 311-333.

Developing emotional resilience in space[edit]

  • ER boosting specifically in space context
    • Psychological testing (prior to space missions): Picano, J. J., Williams, T. J., & Roland, R. R. (2006). Assessment and selection of high-risk operational personnel. Military psychology: Clinical and operational applications, 353-370.
  • Team building
  • Distraction and diversion
  • Celebrating "small wins"

Contact with people on the ground has a significant impact in improving the mood of astronauts. This includes contact with mission control, family and friends, and receiving updates on current events and news (Kanas & Manzey, 2008, Kelly & Kanas, 1994). 

What are the implications for life on Earth?[edit]

Military implications[edit]

  • family deployment resilience: Van Breda, A. D. (1999a). Developing resilience to routine separations: An occupational social work intervention. Families in Society, 80(6), 597-605.
  • Meredith, L. S., Sherbourne, C. D., Gaillot, S. J., Hansell, L., Ritschard, H. V., Parker, A. M., & Wrenn, G. (2011). Promoting psychological resilience in the US militaryRand health quarterly1(2).
Figure 2. Military families must build emotional resilience to manage separation through deployment.

Exploration implications[edit]

Isolation implications[edit]

General implications[edit]

Ritsher, J. B., Ihle, E. C., & Kanas, N. (2005). Positive psychological effects of space missions. Acta Astronautica57(2), 630-633. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9sv490jt

Templates for later use[edit]

Tables[edit]

Tables can be an effective way to organise content.

Here is an example:

Table 1.

This is an Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3
C1R1 C2R1 C3R1
C1R2 C2R2 C3R2
C1R3 C2R3 C3R3

Quiz questions[edit]

Here are some example quiz questions - choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1

Approximately how many neurons are in the human brain?

1,000,000 (1 million)
10,000,000 (10 million)
100,000,000 (100 million)
1,000,000,000 (1 billion)
10,000,000,000 (10 billion)

2

A typical neuron fires ________ per second.

1 to 4
5 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 499


For more information, see Help:Quiz.

Conclusion[edit]

  • There are major things to consider when supporting astronauts to maintain emotional resilience
  • These have practical implications in a variety of settings

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Liu, Q., Zhou, R. L., Zhao, X., Chen, X. P., & Chen, S. G. (2016). Acclimation during space flight: effects on human emotion. Military Medical Research, 3(1), 15. https://mmrjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40779-016-0084-3

Endler, N. S. (2004). The joint effects of person and situation factors on stress in spaceflight. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 75(7), C22-C27.

Kanas, N., & Manzey, D. (2008). Space psychology and psychiatry (Vol. 22). Springer Science & Business Media. http://simbi.kemenag.go.id/pustaka/images/materibuku/space-psychology-and-psychiatry.pdf

Kanas, N., Sandal, G., Boyd, J. E., Gushin, V. I., Manzey, D., North, R., ... & Inoue, N. (2009). Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions. Acta Astronautica, 64(7), 659-677. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gloria_Leon2/publication/237830983_International_Academy_of_Astronautics_Study_Group_on_Psychology_and_Culture_During_Long-Duration_Space_Missions_Final_Report_Revised/links/567b0abc08aebccc4dfd7209/International-Academy-of-Astronautics-Study-Group-on-Psychology-and-Culture-During-Long-Duration-Space-Missions-Final-Report-Revised.pdf

Picano, J. J., Williams, T. J., & Roland, R. R. (2006). Assessment and selection of high-risk operational personnel. Military psychology: Clinical and operational applications, 353-370. http://docshare01.docshare.tips/files/7980/79801447.pdf#page=370

Ritsher, J. B., Ihle, E. C., & Kanas, N. (2005). Positive psychological effects of space missions. Acta Astronautica, 57(2), 630-633. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9sv490jt Suedfeld, P. (2005). Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76(6), B61-B66. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2005/00000076/a00106s1/art00009

Van Breda, A. D. (2001). Resilience theory: A literature review. Pretoria, South Africa: South African Military Health Service

Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Caldwell, J. A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science21(2), 85-89.

Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1982). The structure of coping. In H. I. McCubbin, A. E. Cauble, & J. M. Patterson (Eds.), Family stress, coping, and social support (pp. 109-135). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Schwartz, R. (1997). Don't look back. Networker, March/April, 40-47.

Suedfeld, P. (2005). Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine76(6), B61-B66.

External links[edit]