# Mathematics for Applied Sciences (Osnabrück 2023-2024)/Part I/Lecture 11

*The Intermediate value theorem*

We want to know what happens to an interval under a continuous function . The values and belong to the image. The Intermediate value theorem tells us that all numbers between and do also belong to the image of the interval.

## Theorem

Let be real numbers, and let be a continuous function. Let be a real number between and . Then there exists an such that .

### Proof

We consider the situation , and show the existence of such an with the bisection method. For that, we put and , we consider the arithmetic mean , and we compute

If , then we put

and if , then we put

In each case, the new interval is lying inside the initial interval and has half of its length. It fulfills again the condition , therefore we can apply the same defining method again and get recursively a family of nested intervals. Let denote the real number which is determined by these nested intervals. For the lower bounds of the intervals, we have , and this carries over to the limit , due to the criterion for continuity in terms of sequences. Hence, . For the upper bounds, we have , and this again carries over to , so . Therefore, .

The method described in this proof is constructive and can be used to give an explicit numerical method.

## Corollary

Let be real numbers, and let be a continuous function with and . Then there exists an such that .

### Proof

This follows immediately from Theorem 11.1 .

## Method

Let
be
real numbers,
and let
denote a
continuous function
such that
and .
Then the function has a zero within the interval, due to
the Intermediate value theorem.
Such a zero can be found by the *bisection method*, as described in the proof
of the Intermediate value theorem.
We put
and ,
and the other interval bounds are inductively defined in such a way that
and
hold. Define
and compute . If
,
then we set

and if , then we set

In both cases, the new interval has half the length of the preceding interval and so we have bisected intervals. The real number defined by these nested intervals is a zero of the function.

## Example

We want to determine approximately a zero for the polynomial

with the help of the method given by the Intermediate value theorem. We have and , hence by Corollary 11.2 , there must be a zero inside the interval . We compute the value of the function at the arithmetic mean of the interval, which is , and get

Hence, we have to continue with the right half of the interval . The arithmetic mean thereof is . The value of the function at this point is

So now we have to continue with the left part of the interval, namely . Its arithmetic mean is . The value of the function at this point is

Therefore, we know that there is a zero between and .

## Remark

The existence of arbitrary roots of nonnegative real numbers follows also from the Intermediate value theorem, since, for , the continuous function attains negative and positive values and has therefore also a zero. The proof of Theorem 8.13 rests on the method of the Intermediate value theorem, even though continuity is not explicitly used.

## Example

Suppose that a regular quadratic table with four table legs is standing on an uneven but stepfree underground. At the moment, it stands on the legs , and the leg does not touch the ground (if we leave in their positions and put down to the ground, then would sink into the ground). We claim that we can bring the table, by turning it around its middle axis, into a position such that it stands on all four legs (we do not claim that the table is then horizontal). To see this, we consider the function which assigns to the angle of rotation, the height of above the ground, when the three other legs are (or would be) on the ground. This height might be negative (if we are on sand, this can be realized, else think of this "ideally“). In degree , the height is positive. In degree , we get a situation which is symmetric to the initial position, but still the legs are supposed to be on the ground. Hence, the height of is now negative. The function has, on the interval , positive and also negative values. Since the function is continuous, by the Intermediate value theorem, it also has a zero.

*Continuous bijective functions and their inverse functions*

For a bijective continuous function on a real interval, its inverse function is again continuous.

## Theorem

Let be an interval and let

denote a continuous, strictly increasing function. Then the image

is also an interval, and the inverse function

is also continuous.

### Proof

*Root functions*

## Theorem

Let . For odd, the power function

is continuous, strictly increasing, bijective, and the inverse function

is strictly increasing and continuous. For even, the power function

is continuous strictly increasing, bijective, and the inverse function

is strictly increasing and continuous.

### Proof

The continuity follows from Corollary 10.7 . The increasing behavior for follows from the Binomial theorem. For odd and , the growth behavior follows from , and the behavior in positive part. The growth behavior gives injectivity. For , we have , which shows that there is no upper bound for the image. For odd, we get that there is no lower bound for the image. Due to the Intermediate value theorem, the image is or . Hence, the power functions are surjective, and the inverse functions exist. The continuity of the inverse functions follows from Theorem 11.7 .

## Example

The speed of sound on earth depends on the temperature. If we work with the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin), then the relation holds, where the speed of sound is measured in . For , the speed of sound is about .

*The theorem of Bolzano-Weierstraß*

The following statement is called *theorem of Bolzano-Weierstraß*.

## Theorem

Let denote a bounded sequence of real numbers. Then this sequence has a convergent subsequence.

### Proof

Suppose that the sequence is bounded by

We define inductively an interval bisection, such that in all the intervals, there are infinitely many members of the sequence. The initial interval is . Suppose that the -th interval is already constructed. We consider the two halves

Al least in one of these, there are infinitely many members of the sequence, and we choose the interval as one half with infinitely many members. By this method, the lengths of the intervals are bisected, and so we have a sequence of nested intervals. As a subsequence, we choose arbitrary elements

with . This is possible, as each interval contains infinitely members. This subsequence converges due to Exercise 8.21 to the number determined by the nested intervals.

*Minima and maxima*

## Definition

Let denote a set, and

a
function.
We say that attains in a point
its *maximum*, if

and that attains in its *minimum*, if

The common name for a maximum or a minimum is *extremum*. In the preceding definition, we also talk about the *global maximum*, since the property refers to all elements of the domain of the definition. When we are only interested in the behavior on an open, maybe small, neighborhood, then the concept of a local maximum is relevant.

## Definition

Suppose that is a subset and let

denote a
function.
We say that attains a *local maximum* in a point
,
if there exists some
,
such that for all
fulfilling
,
the estimate

holds. We say that attains a *local minimum* in a point
,
if there exists some
,
such that for all
fulfilling
,
the estimate

If
holds for all
,
then we talk about an *isolated maximum*.

## Theorem

Let be a closed bounded interval, and let

denote a continuous function. Then there exists some such that

(and its minimum).

### Proof

With the help of differential calculus, we will get to know effective methods to determine minima and maxima.

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