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- Scientific misconduct became a controversial public policy issue in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s when several cases of faked and fabricated research were discovered in prestigious academic institutions and resulted in coverage in the general as well as scientific press. This publicity drew Congressional and federal agency attention to what, until then, had been treated primarily as a matter of institutional or laboratory policy. No scientist had ever condoned such behavior, but most preferred to handle the investigation or resolution internally and quietly, regardless of the source of funding or the prestige or standing of the accused.
- Scientific Fraud and Misconduct and the Federal Response, 1988: Hearing of the Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., 11 April, 1988.
- Scientific Fraud and Misconduct in the National Institutes of Health Biomedical Grant Programs, 1988: Hearing of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., 12 April, 1988.
- Scientific Fraud and Misconduct: The Institutional Response, 1989: Hearing of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 101st Cong., 1st Sess., 9 May, 1989.
- Scientific Fraud, 1990: Hearing of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess., 14 May, 1990.
- Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 1990: Maintaining the Integrity of Scientific Research, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess., 1990.
- Kochen, Manfred (1987). "How Well Do We Acknowledge Intellectual Debts?" Journal of Documentation, 43 (1): 54-64. [^]
- Literature/1989/Garfield [^]