Ithkuil/Roots and Stems
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Formatives[edit | edit source]
There are three stems to conjugate for. We introduce the Vv forms with telic and atelic version.
5. a üňolú tele hlo :kwiëň\:
6. ařkulô hli :maria: zï mëi
This uses more specifications and a carrier root shortcut. It also has a Retrospective aspect marker for past tense.
Let's go over some more examples of stem, function, case, and validation.
7. tailá mai za aň etáil elalai za al užveilû tha lou
This sentence uses a different Illocution.
8. attulí luwüs
9. ažfalêi sei GEN
10. ëčřa, arkyalogái ri AFF
11. žval agzjalá řeu uţtä’la mü’le ATT
12. airkšaliá su žalüšhâ šï STM
13. li ážyalï fxalogï ša’i
14. bal kriwïth
15. ukcíl waẓpoi za
16. zal ukcilui waẓpoi ẓa
17. ekcík anžala ẓa
18. yuivla lua
19. maliá wadna mü
20. eřkalá mü úxeula wes :ánanas:
Although it's not frequently used, the starting vowel of a formative can be o, indicating a stemless formative, using stem 0.
Consider the root N, meaning transfer of possession. It is used in the sentences enoliehá lowez ubalü and enolá lowüp äsale :ánanas:. The use of Absolutive on the direct object is not necessary, but emphasizes the fact that the verb (which has Dynamic Function) applies to the direct object as well as the subject and indirect object.
Framed verbs change the stress from ultimate to antepenultimate (third-to-last).
Function and Specification are shown through primary characters by various extensions, as well as Context shown in the table below. All formatives so far have used Existential Context, but there are also Functional and Representational Contexts for literal and metaphorical emphasis.
These sentences require addressing external junction
|OBJ + Dynamic||ö||ou||uö|
|CVS + Dynamic||o||oi||uo|
|BSC + Dynamic||u||ui||ua|
Function[edit | edit source]
Existential context marks, Functional context marks, Representational context marks, Amalgamative function marks .
Scoping order root ← stem/specification ← function ← Ca ←Context
Referentials[edit | edit source]
Below is the table of Referential consonants. m stands for Monadic, or singular. p stands for Polyadic, or plural. i stands for inanimate. a stands for animate. Mixed (Mx) stands for a combination of inanimate+animate (mi+ma/pi+ma/mi+pa/pi+pa). Provisional (PVS) stands for an uncertain reference. Obviative (Obv) stands for a certain reference.
|pi||ẓ / ļ||f||v||pa||ň||k||g|
Basic Ca[edit | edit source]
This Complex affix is initially built from 19 configurations and 4 affiliations. Affiliation includes the Consolidative (CSL), the Associative (ASO), the Variative (VAR), and the Coalescent (COA). CSL Affiliation means that the member(s) have no clear function or purpose. ASO Affiliation means the members have the same clear function. VAR Affiliation means the members share opposing, maybe contradictory functions. COA Affiliation means the members have distinct functions which further a greater goal.
Configuration has three plexities indicating how many units a noun or verb is made of: uniplex, duplex, and multiplex. Uniplex has two similarities, while duplex and multiplex have three similarities and three separabilities. The uniplex Configuration simply refers to one instance of a formative. The multiplex Configurations have three forms separability: Separate (SEP), Connected (CND), and Fused (FSD). The forms of similarity are Similar (MPS), Dissimilar (MPD), and Fuzzy (MPF), the last of which indicates uncertainty to whether something belongs to the category you're ascribing it. The duplex configurations are the same as the multiplex ones, but with only two members. They are formed by prefixing the Ca form with an l-. For now just remember that Configuration works in conjunction with Affiliation, which indicates the function of each of the members.
In this lesson, we focus on Perspective. Just as the default Affiliation is CSL, the default Perpsective is Monadic (M), which means that the configurative entity is singular. Polyadic Perspective means the entity is plural. Nomic Perspective means the entity is a collective entity or archetype tied to no specific instance. Abstract Perspective means the entity is a concept dissociated from spacetime, which is useful for unrealized verbs.
Affiliation[edit | edit source]
The four affiliations are Consolidative (CSL), Associative (ASO), Variative (VAR) and Coalescent (COA). Consolidative affiliation indicates . Associative affiliation indicates . Variative affiliation indicates . Coalescent affiliation indicates .
Perspective[edit | edit source]
The four perspectives are Monadic, Polyadic, Nomic and Abstract. The default Monadic perspective indicates . Polyadic perspective indicates . Nomic perspective indicates . Abstract perspective indicates .
|Separate||t||Associative||(d) t||Polyadic||(r) r/v|
|Connected||k||Coalescent||(g) k||Nomic||(v) w|
|Fused||p||Variative||(b) p||Abstract||(z) y|
We will go over the other Ca tables in later lessons, including the allomorphic substitutions. When all (read: both) categories are at their default, the form in parentheses l is used. The default Extension form is Delimitive (DEL), meaning the entirety of a formative. It scopes after Configuration and Affiliation conjugate, but before Perspective. On the other hand Normal (NRM) and Representative (RPV) Essence scope after all the other Ca categories. The latter should not be confused with Representational context, which indicates metonymy and scopes after all Ca categories.
Duplex forms are the same as MPS, but similar forms take the l- prefix, dissimilar forms take the r- prefix, and fuzzy forms take the ř- prefix. Default extension values also used when Perspective + Essence is non-zero
Case[edit | edit source]
An agent is an animate initiator of an action. A force is an inanimate initiator. An instrument allows an agent or force to perform an action. A patient is changed because of some action. An enabler enables things.
Transrelative[edit | edit source]
The Thematic case (THM) marks
The Instrumental case (INS) marks
The Absolutive case (ABS) marks
The Stimulative case (STM) marks
The Ergative case (ERG) marks
The Effectuative case (EFF) marks
The Affective case (AFF) marks
The Dative case (DAT) marks
The Inducive case (IND) marks
|DAT||Dative||recipient / possesor||ü|
|INS||Instrumental||instrument / medium||ä|
|STM||Stimulative||force / stimulus||ë|
Appositive[edit | edit source]
The Possessive case (POS) marks
The Proprietive case (PRP) marks
The Genitive case (GEN) marks
The Attributive case (ATT) marks
The Productive case (PDC) marks
The Interpretative case (ITP) marks
The Originative case (OGN) marks
The Interdependent case (IDP) marks
The Partitive case (PAR) marks
Associative[edit | edit source]
The Applicative case (APL) marks
The Purposive case (PUR) marks
The Transmissive case (TRA) marks
The Deferential case (DFR) marks
The Contrastive case (CRS) marks
The Commutative case (CMM) marks
The Comparative case (CMP) marks
Comparison cases are replaced by the SCL affix (Standards for Comparison for use with Levels)
The Considerative case (CSD) marks
The Functive case (FUN) marks
The Transformative case (TFM) marks
The Classificative case (CLA) marks
The Resultative case (RSL) marks
The Consumptive case (CSM) marks
The Concessive case (CON) marks
The Aversive case (AVR) marks
The Conversive case (CVS) marks
The Situative case (SIT) marks
Relational[edit | edit source]
The Referential case (REF) marks the thing being regarded or pertained to (about the weather, song of love, attitude toward men)
The Assimilative (ASI) marks something as an analogy or comparison (like a butterfly, as if he were a child)
The Essive case (ESS) marks (our only hope, as the child he is)
The Correlative case (COR) marks (career goals, soup of the day, direction of the road, elapsed time relative to the distance determines the winner, sex and/in art, years of wonder, clown planet, spacial coordinate, political economy, dangerous situation)
The Compositive case (CPS) marks
The Comitative case (COM) marks
The Utilitative case (UTL) marks
The RelAtive case (RLT) marks
The Activative case (ACT) marks
The Descriptive case (DSP) marks
The Predicative case (PRD) marks
The Mediative case (MED) marks
The Conductive case (CNV) marks
The Interdependent case (IDP) marks
The Transpositive case (TSP) marks
The Conjunctive case (CNJ) marks
The Abessive case (ABE) marks
The Dependent case (DEP) marks
The Provisional case (PVS) marks
The Postulative case (PTL) marks
The Derivative case (DER) marks
The Exceptive case (EXC) marks
The Vocative case (VOC) marks direct address of something. (oh you!, hey Arnold!)
Spatio-Temporal[edit | edit source]
The Locative case (LOC) marks the location where something occurs or is situated at / in / on / by
The Attendant case (ATD) marks whatever is present at something, making it vaguely involved as a witness bearing memory or even reacting to it (test before him; shout before her)
The Allative case (ALL) marks where something approaches toward (into the light)
The Ablative case (ABL) marks where something recedes from (from straight up)
The Orientative case (ORI) marks the interface or front/head end of something in motion (papers strewn about the desk, go toboggan-ward, he descending feet-first)
The Interrelative case (IRL) marks a spaciotemporal reference (behind him, relative to when my work shift ends)
The Intrative case (INV) marks a spaciotemporal boundary (between the corners, as of the announcement, until nightfall)
The Navigative case (NAV) marks something relative to which a vector or trajectory occurs (down the street, along the middle of the room)
The default navigative vector for describing positions is the arrow pointing from the sunrise to the sunset. The X-axis points north perpendicular to this vector and the Z-axis points up, starting at whatever is marked by the IRL case.
The Concursive case (CNR) marks the time during which something occurs (during empanada brunch)
The Assessive case (ASS) marks a unit ratio of time or space (three per hour, five for every answer)
The Periodic case (PER) marks the span or timeframe over which something nonconsecutive occurs (learn it in a week, throughout his childhood)
The Prolapsive case (PRO) marks how long something occurs (for seven minutes, for a painting session)
The Precursive case (PCV) marks the time before which something occurs (before the wedding)
The Postcursive case (PCR) marks the time after which something occurs. (after the divorce)
The Elapsive case (ELP) marks the duration between the present and an event in the past or future. (a month ago, two generations from now)
The Prolimitive case (PLM) marks a spaciotemporal boundary before which something occurs. (within a minute, by the end of her rebellious phase)
Exercises[edit | edit source]
- What case would you use for OBJ/3-STA-[D]-UNI/ASO and why? What about CSV/2-STA-[D]-MSS/CSL?
- Translate "I run with my legs" versus "I run with him".