Ithkuil/Roots and Stems

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Formatives[edit | edit source]

Consider the root J, meaning transfer of possession. It is used in the sentences ajailá abälo adala abaelü and ajailá ümso äsala :ánanas:

Framed verbs change the Vv a value you've seen at the beginning of all words so far into ai to signal that the verb is a restrictive clause.

Consider the root Ř, meaning to possess. It is used in the sentence ařailá mü aixaulá äsala :ánanas: where the second verb is framed with ai.

Function and Specification are shown through primary characters by various extensions. Below is a table of how they are pronounced together, including a stem 0 to leave interpretation ambiguous.

Specification STA Stative DYN Dynamic
S1 S2 S3 S0 S1 S2 S3 S0
BSC Basic a ä ia / öa ao ai au ua / aö ae
CTE Contential e ü ie / öe ea ei eu ue / eö eo
CVS Constitutive o ö io / uö oa oi ou uo / iö oe
OBJ Objective u i ië / oë ? ëi ui iu uë / eë ? ëu

Basic Ca[edit | edit source]

This Complex affix is initially built from 20 configurations and 4 affiliations. Affiliation includes the Consolidative (CSL), the Associative (ASO), the Variative (VAR), and the Coalescent (COA). CSL Affiliation means that the member(s) have no clear function or purpose. ASO Affiliation means the members have the same clear function. VAR Affiliation means the members share opposing, maybe contradictory functions. COA Affiliation means the members have distinct functions which further a greater goal.

Configuration has three memberships indicating how many units a noun or verb is made of: uniplex, duplex, and multiplex. Uniplex has two similarities, while duplex and multiplex have three similarities and three structures. The uniplex Configurations include the Specific (UXS) and Potential (UXP). The multiplex Configurations include the Discrete (DCT), the Segmentative (SEG), the Coherent (COH), the Aggregative (AGG), the Componential (CPN), the Composite (CST), the Multiform (MLT), the Assembled (ASL), and the Agglomerative (AGL). Finally, the duplex Configurations include the Double (DBL), the Dyadic (DYA), the Dualistic (DUA), the Binary (BIN), the Paired (PAI), the Coupled (CPD), the Dichotomous (DCH), the Moietive (MOI), and the Bioperative (BIP).

Instead of learning all those names though, you can remember that multiplex and duplex have three structures: Separate (SEP), Connected (CND), and Fused (FSD). The multiplex similarities are Similar (MPS), Dissimilar (MPD), and Fuzzy (MPF), which indicates uncertainty as to whether something belongs to the category you're ascribing it. The duplex similarities are likewise Similar (DPS), Dissimilar (DPD), and Fuzzy (DPF), but with only two members. The uniplex similarities are just Specific (UXS) and Potential (UXP), the latter of which just means Fuzzy. We will discuss Configuration in further lessons, but for now just remember that it works in conjunction with Affiliation, which indicates the function of each of the members.

In this lesson, we focus on Perspective. Just as the default Affiliation is CSL, the default Perpsective is Monadic (M), which means that the configurative entity is singular. Polyadic Perspective means the entity is plural. Nomic Perspective means the entity is a collective entity or archetype tied to no specific instance. Abstract Perspective means the entity is a concept dissociated from spacetime, which is useful for unrealized verbs.

Configuration Affiliation Perspective
Specific [ø] Consolidative [ø] Monadic [ø] (l)
Separate t Associative s Polyadic l (ls)
Connected k Variative f Nomic r
Fused p Coalescent š Abstract w (lš)

We will go over the other Ca tables in later lessons, including the allomorphic substitutions. When all (read: both) categories are at their default, the form in parentheses l is used. Thus we have the form ičal(a) or čila . The second pronunciation can not drop the final a because the stress needs to be on the second-to-last (penultimate) syllable.

Later Lessons:

UXS [ø] ← Uniplex
UXP ţ Multiplex ↓ Duplex ↓
Similar SEP DCT t DBL lt
Dissimilar SEP AGG n BIN rt
Fuzzy SEP MLT s DCH řt
Affiliation Extension Perspective + Essence
CSL [ø] DEL [ø] M [ø] (l) ř
ASO s PRX t (ļt) P l (ls) ļ (lz)
VAR f ICP k (ļk) N r h (rs)
COA š ATV p (ļp) A w (lš) y (rš)
GRA g P/RPV can also be ll / hw

N/RPV can also be rr / v


Duplex forms are the same as MPS, but similar forms take the l- prefix, dissimilar forms take the r- prefix, and fuzzy forms take the ř- prefix. Default extension values also used when Perspective + Essence is non-zero

Case[edit | edit source]

An agent is an animate initiator of an action. A force is an inanimate initiator. An instrument allows an agent or force to perform an action. A patient is changed because of some action. An enabler enables things.





a Ithkuil-case-oblique.jpg PRP Proprietive î / û Ithkuil-case-proprietive.jpg PUR Purposive e’ Ithkuil-case-purposive.jpg
IND Inducive u Ithkuil-case-inducive.jpg GEN Genitive ê Ithkuil-case-genitive.jpg CSD Considerative o’ Ithkuil-case-considerative.jpg
ABS Absolutive e Ithkuil-case-absolutive.jpg ATT Attributive ô Ithkuil-case-attributive.jpg ESS Essive ea Ithkuil-case-essive.jpg
ERG Ergative o Ithkuil-case-ergative.jpg PDC Productive ëi Ithkuil-case-productive.jpg ASI Assimilative eo Ithkuil-case-assimilative.jpg
EFF Effectuative ö Ithkuil-case-effectuative.jpg ITP Interpretative öi Ithkuil-case-interpretative.jpg FUN Functive Ithkuil-case-functive.jpg
AFF Affective i Ithkuil-case-affective.jpg OGN Originative ae Ithkuil-case-originative.jpg TFM Transformative oa Ithkuil-case-transformative.jpg
DAT Dative ü / a’e Ithkuil-case-dative.jpg PAR Partitive ia / ua Ithkuil-case-partitive.jpg REF Referential oe Ithkuil-case-referential.jpg
INS Instrumental ai Ithkuil-case-instrumental.jpg CRS Contrative ie / ue Ithkuil-case-contrastive.jpg CLA Classificative öa Ithkuil-case-classificative.jpg
ACT Activative ei Ithkuil-case-activative.jpg CPS Compositive io / uo Ithkuil-case-compositive.jpg IDP Interdependent üa / i’ Ithkuil-case-interdependent.jpg




ui Ithkuil-case-derivative.jpg PRD Predicative iö / uö Ithkuil-case-predicative.jpg BEN




üe / ö’ Ithkuil-case-benefactive.jpg
SIT Situative oi Ithkuil-case-situative.jpg APL Applicative u’ Ithkuil-case-applicative.jpg TSP Transpositive üo / î’ / û’ Ithkuil-case-transpositive.jpg
POS Possessive â Ithkuil-case-possessive.jpg MED Mediative CNV Conductive
CMM Commutative au Ithkuil-case-commutative.jpg AVR Aversive eu’ Ithkuil-case-aversive.jpg ELP Elapsive ui’A Ithkuil-case-elapsive.jpg
COM Comitative eu Ithkuil-case-comitative.jpg CMP Comparative ou’ Ithkuil-case-comparative.jpg EPS




au’A Ithkuil-case-episodic.jpg
UTL Utilitative ou Ithkuil-case-utilitative.jpg ASS Assessive e’A Ithkuil-case-assessive.jpg PLM Prolimitive eu’A Ithkuil-case-prolimitive.jpg
CVS Conversive öu Ithkuil-case-conversive.jpg CNR Concursive i’A Ithkuil-case-concursive.jpg LOC Locative â’A Ithkuil-case-locative.jpg
COR Correlative ai’ Ithkuil-case-correlative.jpg PER Periodic ö’A Ithkuil-case-periodic.jpg ORI Orientative ê’A Ithkuil-case-orientative.jpg
DEP Dependent ui’ Ithkuil-case-dependent.jpg PRO Prolapsive ü’/ ë’A Ithkuil-case-prolapsive.jpg ALL Allative î’A / û’A Ithkuil-case-allative.jpg
CON Concessive au’ Ithkuil-case-concessive.jpg PCV Precursive ai’A Ithkuil-case-precursive.jpg ABL Ablative ëu’A Ithkuil-case-ablative.jpg
VOC Vocative ë Ithkuil-case-vocative.jpg PCR Postcursive ei’A Ithkuil-case-postcursive.jpg NAV Navigative ou’A Ithkuil-case-navigative.jpg
CNJ Conjunctive, ABE Abessive,

PVS Provisional, PTL Postulative

EXC Exceptive, SML Simultaneitive,

ACS Accessive, DFF Diffusive

ALP Allapsive, INP Interpolative,

LIM Limitative, PSV Procursive

The following cases have been added/changed:

PAR no longer has the meaning ‘some/a portion of’

Deferential (DFR) case means ‘out of respect for,’ ‘for the sake of,’ or ‘in deference toward’

Consumptive (CSM) case means ‘in the process, using up’

Resultative (RSL) case means ‘resulting in’

Attendant (ATD) case means ‘in the presence of’

Interrelative (IRL) case takes COR case's second meaning, ‘spatially/temporally relative to’

Intrative (INV) case means spaciotemporally between, ‘as of/since/until’

Conformational (CFM) case means ‘as per the requirements of’ and splits off from CSD case's meaning, ‘according to’

The Descriptive (DSC) case takes COR case's first meaning, ‘having the quality/characteristics of’

RelAtive (RLT) case basically creates a simple relative clause

Terminative (TRM) case indicates a goal

Comparison cases are replaced by the SCL affix (Standards for Comparison for use with Levels)

Transrelative[edit | edit source]

The Oblique case (OBL) marks

The Inducive case (IND) marks

The Absolutive case (ABS) marks

The Ergative case (ERG) marks

The Effectuative case (EFF) marks

The Affective case (AFF) marks

The Dative case (DAT) marks

The Instrumental case (INS) marks

The Activative case (ACT) marks

The Derivative case (DER) marks

The Situative case (SIT) marks

Appositive[edit | edit source]

The Possessive case (POS) marks

The Proprietive case (PRP) marks

The Genitive case (GEN) marks

The Attributive case (ATT) marks

The Productive case (PDC) marks

The Interpretative case (ITP) marks

The Originative case (OGN) marks

Associative[edit | edit source]

The Partitive case (PAR) marks

The Contrastive case (CRS) marks

The Compositive case (CPS) marks

The Predicative case (PRD) marks

The Mediative case (MED) marks

The Applicative case (APL) marks

The Purposive case (PUR) marks

The Considerative case (CSD) marks

The Essive case (ESS) marks

The Assimilative (ASI) marks

The Functive case (FUN) marks

The Transformative case (TFM) marks

The Referential case (REF) marks

The Classificative case (CLA) marks

The Conductive case (CNV) marks

Relational[edit | edit source]

The Interdependent case (IDP) marks

The Benefactive case (BEN) marks

The Transpositive case (TSP) marks

The Commutative case (CMM) marks

The Comitative case (COM) marks

The Conjunctive case (CNJ)

The Utilitative case (UTL) marks

The Abessive case (ABE) marks

The Conversive case (CVS) marks

The Correlative case (COR) marks

The Dependent case (DEP) marks

The Provisional case (PVS) marks

The Postulative case (PTL) marks

The Concessive case (CON) marks

The Vocative case (VOC) marks direct address of something.

The Exceptive case (EXC) marks

The Aversive case (AVR) marks

The Comparative case (CMP) marks

Spatio-Temporal[edit | edit source]

The Simultaneitive case (SML) marks the time of something happening. (at the same time as his accident)

The Assessive case (ASS) marks the measured unit of time. (doing three per minute)

The Concursive case (CNR) marks an event with beginning and ending boundaries. (during lunch)

The Accessive case (ACS) marks a moment

The Diffusive case (DFF) marks

The Periodic case (PER) marks

The Prolapsive case (PRO) marks

The Precursive case (PCV) marks

The Postcursive case (PCR) marks

The Elapsive case (ELP) marks

The Allapsive case (ALP) marks

The Interpolative case (INP) marks

The Episodic case (EPS) marks

The Prolimitive case (PLM) marks

The Limitative case (LIM) marks

The Locative case (LOC) marks

The Orientative case (ORI) marks

The Procursive case (PSV) marks

The Allative case (ALL) marks

The Ablative case (ABL) marks

The Navigative case (NAV) marks the item relative to which a vector or trajectory occurs.

Affixes[edit | edit source]

Some roots correspond to the Cs component of affixes. Below is a table of the Vx values. The values -eë and -oë are used for Ca stacking.

Degree Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
1 a ai ia / üa
2 ä au ua / aü
3 e ei ie / üe
4 ë eu ue / eü
5 i ëi ië / uë
6 ö ou uo / oü
7 o oi io / üo
8 ü iu uö / öü
9 u ui iö / üö
0 ae ea öa

Orientation[edit | edit source]

We typically communicate the relative position of things according to a coordinate system facing forwards towards the direction of the sunset so that North is to our right, South is to our left, and East is right behind. This system works at night, in inclement weather, or even indoors, so long as the speakers are aware of the Y-axis delineated by the direction of the sun's apparent movement. We make it 3D by including the Z-axis going up. In some indoor situations, an arbitrary Y-axis is connoted by the length of the room in a direction away from whichever end of the room displays a visibly unique feature (e.g., the doorway, a window, an alcove, an imposing piece of furniture, a stage or dais, etc.), this symbolically substituting for the position of the rising sun. This is the coordinate system which would be employed in theaters, enclosed banquet halls without windows, and cellars without windows or ready access to outside orientation. You can also use an arbitrarily delineated axis based on local landmarks, objects, or persons. This is similar to a Western relative system in which the speaker announces the orientation perspective being utilized. An Ithkuil speaker would consider this a highly unusual and “affected” method of reckoning. Nevertheless, it is possible to use the Navigative case to designate a personally defined reckoning system using words to designate the origin point and direction of the Y-axis vector. The primary use for this system of reckoning is literary or narrative, such as when a speaker tells a story of another time and place, where they wish to describe spatial relationships solely within the context of the story in order to convey a mental map or image of the goings-on to the audience.

Girth is the direction in which your hips swing, reach is the direction in which your eyes look, and amplitude is the direction you jump or crouch in. These are the x, y, and z axes respectively. We can use these axes to divide a scene into eight octants. +X / +Y / +Z (spyal); +X / +Y / -Z (spwal); +X / -Y / +Z (skyal); +X / -Y / -Z (skwal); -X / +Y / +Z (zbyal); -X / +Y / -Z (zbwal); -X / -Y / +Z (zgyal); -X / -Y / -Z (zgwal); Each root can have an SSD suffix applied to signify motion into another octantː SSD1 1) +X/+Y/+Z; 2) +X/+Y/-Z; 3) +X/-Y/+Z; 4) +X/-Y/-Z; 6) -X/+Y/+Z; 7) -X/+Y/-Z; 8) -X/-Y/+Z; 9) -X/-Y/-Z; and the 5) describes motion to a location between octantsː (pyal) or (pwal), (kyal) or (kwal), (spal) or (skal), (syal) or (swal). There's also the lower inner quadrantsː (zbal) and (zgal), (zyal) and (zwal). Of course, there's also the center (ţal), and six basic directions (ţyal), (ţwal), (pal), (kal), (sal), and (zal). You can describe its dimensions.

(lpçal) is the front part of something. (clal) is the center parallel to the long axis of something. (cral) is the center perpendicular to the long axis of something. And (rkçal) is the back/rear of something. Use the static qualities of width, depth, and height.

Looking at a person in front of you facing to your left, they have little width, medium depth, and large height. Looking at yourself, you have medium width, little depth, and large height. If you laterally inverted reality, map view would be just the same as drawing one from looking at everything upside down. If you vertically inverted reality, left would be right and visa-versa. If instead you turn about the y-plane or rotate about your right leg, then you're looking in the opposite direction. You could also look into a mirror and even though left would be right and visa-versa, you would see behind you. You can topologically invert a sphere by making the lines of latitude alternate patterns of convexity and concavity, pushing these strips through each other, rotating the poles opposite to each other, and pushing the strips back through each other, and returning the sphere to its state of rotundity.

Exercizes[edit | edit source]

  • What case would you use for STA/3-OBJ-[D]-UNI/ASO and why? What about STA/2-CSV-[D]-DCT/CSL?
  • Translate "I run with my legs" versus "I run with him".

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