Ithkuil/Roots and Stems
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Consider the root J, meaning transfer of possession. It is used in the sentences ajailá abälo adala abaelü and ajailá ümso äsala :ánanas:
Framed verbs change the Vv a value you've seen at the beginning of all words so far into ai to signal that the verb is a restrictive clause.
Consider the root Ř, meaning to possess. It is used in the sentence ařailá mü aixaulá äsala :ánanas: where the second verb is framed with ai.
Function and Specification are shown through primary characters by various extensions. Below is a table of how they are pronounced together, including a stem 0 to leave interpretation ambiguous.
|Specification||STA Stative||DYN Dynamic|
|BSC Basic||a||ä||ia / öa||ao||ai||au||ua / aö||ae|
|CTE Contential||e||ü||ie / öe||ea||ei||eu||ue / eö||eo|
|CVS Constitutive||o||ö||io / uö||oa||oi||ou||uo / iö||oe|
|OBJ Objective||u||i||ië / oë ?||ëi||ui||iu||uë / eë ?||ëu|
This Complex affix is initially built from 20 configurations and 4 affiliations. Affiliation includes the Consolidative (CSL), the Associative (ASO), the Variative (VAR), and the Coalescent (COA). CSL Affiliation means that the member(s) have no clear function or purpose. ASO Affiliation means the members have the same clear function. VAR Affiliation means the members share opposing, maybe contradictory functions. COA Affiliation means the members have distinct functions which further a greater goal.
Configuration has three memberships indicating how many units a noun or verb is made of: uniplex, duplex, and multiplex. Uniplex has two similarities, while duplex and multiplex have three similarities and three structures. The uniplex Configurations include the Specific (UXS) and Potential (UXP). The multiplex Configurations include the Discrete (DCT), the Segmentative (SEG), the Coherent (COH), the Aggregative (AGG), the Componential (CPN), the Composite (CST), the Multiform (MLT), the Assembled (ASL), and the Agglomerative (AGL). Finally, the duplex Configurations include the Double (DBL), the Dyadic (DYA), the Dualistic (DUA), the Binary (BIN), the Paired (PAI), the Coupled (CPD), the Dichotomous (DCH), the Moietive (MOI), and the Bioperative (BIP).
Instead of learning all those names though, you can remember that multiplex and duplex have three structures: Separate (SEP), Connected (CND), and Fused (FSD). The multiplex similarities are Similar (MPS), Dissimilar (MPD), and Fuzzy (MPF), which indicates uncertainty as to whether something belongs to the category you're ascribing it. The duplex similarities are likewise Similar (DPS), Dissimilar (DPD), and Fuzzy (DPF), but with only two members. The uniplex similarities are just Specific (UXS) and Potential (UXP), the latter of which just means Fuzzy. We will discuss Configuration in further lessons, but for now just remember that it works in conjunction with Affiliation, which indicates the function of each of the members.
In this lesson, we focus on Perspective. Just as the default Affiliation is CSL, the default Perpsective is Monadic (M), which means that the configurative entity is singular. Polyadic Perspective means the entity is plural. Nomic Perspective means the entity is a collective entity or archetype tied to no specific instance. Abstract Perspective means the entity is a concept dissociated from spacetime, which is useful for unrealized verbs.
We will go over the other Ca tables in later lessons, including the allomorphic substitutions. When all (read: both) categories are at their default, the form in parentheses l is used. Thus we have the form ičal(a) or čila . The second pronunciation can not drop the final a because the stress needs to be on the second-to-last (penultimate) syllable.
|UXP||ţ||Multiplex ↓||Duplex ↓|
|Affiliation||Extension||Perspective + Essence|
|ASO||s||PRX||t (ļt)||P||l (ls)||ļ (lz)|
|VAR||f||ICP||k (ļk)||N||r||h (rs)|
|COA||š||ATV||p (ļp)||A||w (lš)||y (rš)|
|GRA||g||P/RPV can also be ll / hw
N/RPV can also be rr / v
Duplex forms are the same as MPS, but similar forms take the l- prefix, dissimilar forms take the r- prefix, and fuzzy forms take the ř- prefix. Default extension values also used when Perspective + Essence is non-zero
An agent is an animate initiator of an action. A force is an inanimate initiator. An instrument allows an agent or force to perform an action. A patient is changed because of some action. An enabler enables things.
The following cases have been added/changed:
PAR no longer has the meaning ‘some/a portion of’
Deferential (DFR) case means ‘out of respect for,’ ‘for the sake of,’ or ‘in deference toward’
Consumptive (CSM) case means ‘in the process, using up’
Resultative (RSL) case means ‘resulting in’
Attendant (ATD) case means ‘in the presence of’
Interrelative (IRL) case takes COR case's second meaning, ‘spatially/temporally relative to’
Intrative (INV) case means spaciotemporally between, ‘as of/since/until’
Conformational (CFM) case means ‘as per the requirements of’ and splits off from CSD case's meaning, ‘according to’
The Descriptive (DSC) case takes COR case's first meaning, ‘having the quality/characteristics of’
RelAtive (RLT) case basically creates a simple relative clause
Terminative (TRM) case indicates a goal
Comparison cases are replaced by the SCL affix (Standards for Comparison for use with Levels)
The Oblique case (OBL) marks
The Inducive case (IND) marks
The Absolutive case (ABS) marks
The Ergative case (ERG) marks
The Effectuative case (EFF) marks
The Affective case (AFF) marks
The Dative case (DAT) marks
The Instrumental case (INS) marks
The Activative case (ACT) marks
The Derivative case (DER) marks
The Situative case (SIT) marks
The Possessive case (POS) marks
The Proprietive case (PRP) marks
The Genitive case (GEN) marks
The Attributive case (ATT) marks
The Productive case (PDC) marks
The Interpretative case (ITP) marks
The Originative case (OGN) marks
The Partitive case (PAR) marks
The Contrastive case (CRS) marks
The Compositive case (CPS) marks
The Predicative case (PRD) marks
The Mediative case (MED) marks
The Applicative case (APL) marks
The Purposive case (PUR) marks
The Considerative case (CSD) marks
The Essive case (ESS) marks
The Assimilative (ASI) marks
The Functive case (FUN) marks
The Transformative case (TFM) marks
The Referential case (REF) marks
The Classificative case (CLA) marks
The Conductive case (CNV) marks
The Interdependent case (IDP) marks
The Benefactive case (BEN) marks
The Transpositive case (TSP) marks
The Commutative case (CMM) marks
The Comitative case (COM) marks
The Conjunctive case (CNJ)
The Utilitative case (UTL) marks
The Abessive case (ABE) marks
The Conversive case (CVS) marks
The Correlative case (COR) marks
The Dependent case (DEP) marks
The Provisional case (PVS) marks
The Postulative case (PTL) marks
The Concessive case (CON) marks
The Vocative case (VOC) marks direct address of something.
The Exceptive case (EXC) marks
The Aversive case (AVR) marks
The Comparative case (CMP) marks
The Simultaneitive case (SML) marks the time of something happening. (at the same time as his accident)
The Assessive case (ASS) marks the measured unit of time. (doing three per minute)
The Concursive case (CNR) marks an event with beginning and ending boundaries. (during lunch)
The Accessive case (ACS) marks a moment
The Diffusive case (DFF) marks
The Periodic case (PER) marks
The Prolapsive case (PRO) marks
The Precursive case (PCV) marks
The Postcursive case (PCR) marks
The Elapsive case (ELP) marks
The Allapsive case (ALP) marks
The Interpolative case (INP) marks
The Episodic case (EPS) marks
The Prolimitive case (PLM) marks
The Limitative case (LIM) marks
The Locative case (LOC) marks
The Orientative case (ORI) marks
The Procursive case (PSV) marks
The Allative case (ALL) marks
The Ablative case (ABL) marks
The Navigative case (NAV) marks the item relative to which a vector or trajectory occurs.
Some roots correspond to the Cs component of affixes. Below is a table of the Vx values. The values -eë and -oë are used for Ca stacking.
|Degree||Type 1||Type 2||Type 3|
|1||a||ai||ia / üa|
|2||ä||au||ua / aü|
|3||e||ei||ie / üe|
|4||ë||eu||ue / eü|
|5||i||ëi||ië / uë|
|6||ö||ou||uo / oü|
|7||o||oi||io / üo|
|8||ü||iu||uö / öü|
|9||u||ui||iö / üö|
We typically communicate the relative position of things according to a coordinate system facing forwards towards the direction of the sunset so that North is to our right, South is to our left, and East is right behind. This system works at night, in inclement weather, or even indoors, so long as the speakers are aware of the Y-axis delineated by the direction of the sun's apparent movement. We make it 3D by including the Z-axis going up. In some indoor situations, an arbitrary Y-axis is connoted by the length of the room in a direction away from whichever end of the room displays a visibly unique feature (e.g., the doorway, a window, an alcove, an imposing piece of furniture, a stage or dais, etc.), this symbolically substituting for the position of the rising sun. This is the coordinate system which would be employed in theaters, enclosed banquet halls without windows, and cellars without windows or ready access to outside orientation. You can also use an arbitrarily delineated axis based on local landmarks, objects, or persons. This is similar to a Western relative system in which the speaker announces the orientation perspective being utilized. An Ithkuil speaker would consider this a highly unusual and “affected” method of reckoning. Nevertheless, it is possible to use the Navigative case to designate a personally defined reckoning system using words to designate the origin point and direction of the Y-axis vector. The primary use for this system of reckoning is literary or narrative, such as when a speaker tells a story of another time and place, where they wish to describe spatial relationships solely within the context of the story in order to convey a mental map or image of the goings-on to the audience.
Girth is the direction in which your hips swing, reach is the direction in which your eyes look, and amplitude is the direction you jump or crouch in. These are the x, y, and z axes respectively. We can use these axes to divide a scene into eight octants. +X / +Y / +Z (spyal); +X / +Y / -Z (spwal); +X / -Y / +Z (skyal); +X / -Y / -Z (skwal); -X / +Y / +Z (zbyal); -X / +Y / -Z (zbwal); -X / -Y / +Z (zgyal); -X / -Y / -Z (zgwal); Each root can have an SSD suffix applied to signify motion into another octantː SSD1 1) +X/+Y/+Z; 2) +X/+Y/-Z; 3) +X/-Y/+Z; 4) +X/-Y/-Z; 6) -X/+Y/+Z; 7) -X/+Y/-Z; 8) -X/-Y/+Z; 9) -X/-Y/-Z; and the 5) describes motion to a location between octantsː (pyal) or (pwal), (kyal) or (kwal), (spal) or (skal), (syal) or (swal). There's also the lower inner quadrantsː (zbal) and (zgal), (zyal) and (zwal). Of course, there's also the center (ţal), and six basic directions (ţyal), (ţwal), (pal), (kal), (sal), and (zal). You can describe its dimensions.
(lpçal) is the front part of something. (clal) is the center parallel to the long axis of something. (cral) is the center perpendicular to the long axis of something. And (rkçal) is the back/rear of something. Use the static qualities of width, depth, and height.
Looking at a person in front of you facing to your left, they have little width, medium depth, and large height. Looking at yourself, you have medium width, little depth, and large height. If you laterally inverted reality, map view would be just the same as drawing one from looking at everything upside down. If you vertically inverted reality, left would be right and visa-versa. If instead you turn about the y-plane or rotate about your right leg, then you're looking in the opposite direction. You could also look into a mirror and even though left would be right and visa-versa, you would see behind you. You can topologically invert a sphere by making the lines of latitude alternate patterns of convexity and concavity, pushing these strips through each other, rotating the poles opposite to each other, and pushing the strips back through each other, and returning the sphere to its state of rotundity.
- What case would you use for STA/3-OBJ-[D]-UNI/ASO and why? What about STA/2-CSV-[D]-DCT/CSL?
- Translate "I run with my legs" versus "I run with him".