Ithkuil/Roots and Stems

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Formatives[edit | edit source]

There are three stems to conjugate for. We introduce the Vv forms with telic and atelic version.

5. a üňolú tele hlo :kwiëň\:

6. ařkulô hli :maria: zï mëi

This uses more specifications and a carrier root shortcut. It also has a Retrospective aspect marker for past tense.

Let's go over some more examples of stem, function, case, and validation.

7. tailá mai za aň etáil elalai za al užveilû tha lou

This sentence uses a different Illocution.

8. attulí luwüs

9. ažfalêi sei GEN

10. ëčřa, arkyalogái ri AFF

11. žval agzjalá řeu uţtä’la mü’le ATT

12. airkšaliá su žalüšhâ šï STM

13. li ážyalï fxalogï ša’i

14. bal kriwïth

15. ukcíl waẓpoi za

16. zal ukcilui waẓpoi ẓa

17. ekcík anžala ẓa

18. yuivla lua

19. maliá wadna mü

20. eřkalá mü úxeula wes :ánanas:

Although it's not frequently used, the starting vowel of a formative can be o, indicating a stemless formative, using stem 0.

Consider the root N, meaning transfer of possession. It is used in the sentences enoliehá lowez ubalü and enolá lowüp äsale :ánanas:. The use of Absolutive on the direct object is not necessary, but emphasizes the fact that the verb (which has Dynamic Function) applies to the direct object as well as the subject and indirect object.

Framed verbs change the stress from ultimate to antepenultimate (third-to-last).

Function and Specification are shown through primary characters by various extensions, as well as Context shown in the table below. All formatives so far have used Existential Context, but there are also Functional and Representational Contexts for literal and metaphorical emphasis.

These sentences require addressing external junction


+ Function

BSC Basic a ai ia
CVS Constitutive e ei ie
OBJ Objective i eu
OBJ + Dynamic ö ou
CVS + Dynamic o oi uo
BSC + Dynamic u ui ua

Function[edit | edit source]

Existential context marks, Functional context marks, Representational context marks, Amalgamative function marks .

Scoping order root ← stem/specification ← function ← Ca ←Context

Referentials[edit | edit source]

Below is the table of Referential consonants. m stands for Monadic, or singular. p stands for Polyadic, or plural. i stands for inanimate. a stands for animate. Mixed (Mx) stands for a combination of inanimate+animate (mi+ma/pi+ma/mi+pa/pi+pa). Provisional (PVS) stands for an uncertain reference. Obviative (Obv) stands for a certain reference.

Referential NEU BEN DET Referential NEU BEN DET
1m l r ř PVS ll rr řř
2m s š ž 2p n t d
pi ẓ / ļ f v pa ň k g
mi z ţ ma m p b
Mx c č j Obv th ph kh

Basic Ca[edit | edit source]

This Complex affix is initially built from 19 configurations and 4 affiliations. Affiliation includes the Consolidative (CSL), the Associative (ASO), the Variative (VAR), and the Coalescent (COA). CSL Affiliation means that the member(s) have no clear function or purpose. ASO Affiliation means the members have the same clear function. VAR Affiliation means the members share opposing, maybe contradictory functions. COA Affiliation means the members have distinct functions which further a greater goal.

Configuration has three plexities indicating how many units a noun or verb is made of: uniplex, duplex, and multiplex. Uniplex has two similarities, while duplex and multiplex have three similarities and three separabilities. The uniplex Configuration simply refers to one instance of a formative. The multiplex Configurations have three forms separability: Separate (SEP), Connected (CND), and Fused (FSD). The forms of similarity are Similar (MPS), Dissimilar (MPD), and Fuzzy (MPF), the last of which indicates uncertainty to whether something belongs to the category you're ascribing it. The duplex configurations are the same as the multiplex ones, but with only two members. They are formed by prefixing the Ca form with an l-. For now just remember that Configuration works in conjunction with Affiliation, which indicates the function of each of the members.

In this lesson, we focus on Perspective. Just as the default Affiliation is CSL, the default Perpsective is Monadic (M), which means that the configurative entity is singular. Polyadic Perspective means the entity is plural. Nomic Perspective means the entity is a collective entity or archetype tied to no specific instance. Abstract Perspective means the entity is a concept dissociated from spacetime, which is useful for unrealized verbs.

Affiliation[edit | edit source]

The four affiliations are Consolidative (CSL), Associative (ASO), Variative (VAR) and Coalescent (COA). Consolidative affiliation indicates . Associative affiliation indicates . Variative affiliation indicates . Coalescent affiliation indicates .

Perspective[edit | edit source]

The four perspectives are Monadic, Polyadic, Nomic and Abstract. The default Monadic perspective indicates . Polyadic perspective indicates . Nomic perspective indicates . Abstract perspective indicates .

Configuration Affiliation Perspective
Uniplex [ø] Consolidative [ø] Monadic (l) [ø]
Separate t Associative (d) t Polyadic (r) r/v
Connected k Coalescent (g) k Nomic (v) w
Fused p Variative (b) p Abstract (z) y

We will go over the other Ca tables in later lessons, including the allomorphic substitutions. When all (read: both) categories are at their default, the form in parentheses l is used. The default Extension form is Delimitive (DEL), meaning the entirety of a formative. It scopes after Configuration and Affiliation conjugate, but before Perspective. On the other hand Normal (NRM) and Representative (RPV) Essence scope after all the other Ca categories. The latter should not be confused with Representational context, which indicates metonymy and scopes after all Ca categories.

Duplex forms are the same as MPS, but similar forms take the l- prefix, dissimilar forms take the r- prefix, and fuzzy forms take the ř- prefix. Default extension values also used when Perspective + Essence is non-zero

Stem 1 wa ya wai yai wia yia wao yao
Stem 2 we ye wei yei wie yie wea yea
Stem 3 wu yu wui yui wua yua woa yoa
Stem 0 wo yo woi yoi wuo yuo woe yoe

Case[edit | edit source]

An agent is an animate initiator of an action. A force is an inanimate initiator. An instrument allows an agent or force to perform an action. A patient is changed because of some action. An enabler enables things.

Transrelative[edit | edit source]

The Thematic case (THM) marks

The Instrumental case (INS) marks

The Absolutive case (ABS) marks

The Stimulative case (STM) marks

The Ergative case (ERG) marks

The Effectuative case (EFF) marks

The Affective case (AFF) marks

The Dative case (DAT) marks

The Inducive case (IND) marks

Transrelative Cases
THM Thematic content (a)
ABS Absolutive patient e
ERG Ergative agent o
IND Inducive self-initiated agent u
EFF Effectuative enabler ö
AFF Affective experiencer i
DAT Dative recipient / possesor ü
INS Instrumental instrument / medium ä
STM Stimulative force / stimulus ë
THM Thematic a Ithkuil-case-oblique.jpg
INS Instrumental ä Ithkuil-case-instrumental.jpg
ABS Absolutive e Ithkuil-case-absolutive.jpg
STM Stimulative ë Ithkuil-case-derivative.jpg
AFF Affective i Ithkuil-case-affective.jpg
EFF Effectuative ö Ithkuil-case-effectuative.jpg
ERG Ergative o Ithkuil-case-ergative.jpg
DAT Dative ü Ithkuil-case-dative.jpg
IND Inducive u Ithkuil-case-inducive.jpg

Appositive[edit | edit source]

The Possessive case (POS) marks

The Proprietive case (PRP) marks

The Genitive case (GEN) marks

The Attributive case (ATT) marks

The Productive case (PDC) marks

The Interpretative case (ITP) marks

The Originative case (OGN) marks

The Interdependent case (IDP) marks

The Partitive case (PAR) marks

POS Possessive ai Ithkuil-case-possessive.jpg
PRP Proprietive au
GEN Genitive ei Ithkuil-case-genitive.jpg
ATT Attributive eu Ithkuil-case-attributive.jpg
PDC Productive ëi Ithkuil-case-productive.jpg
ITP Interpretative ou Ithkuil-case-interpretative.jpg
OGN Originative oi Ithkuil-case-originative.jpg
IDP Interdependent iu Ithkuil-case-interdependent.jpg
PAR Partitive ui Ithkuil-case-partitive.jpg

Associative[edit | edit source]

The Applicative case (APL) marks

The Purposive case (PUR) marks

The Transmissive case (TRA) marks

The Deferential case (DFR) marks

The Contrastive case (CRS) marks

The Commutative case (CMM) marks

The Comparative case (CMP) marks

Comparison cases are replaced by the SCL affix (Standards for Comparison for use with Levels)

The Considerative case (CSD) marks

APL Applicative ia / oä Ithkuil-case-applicative.jpg FUN Functive ao Ithkuil-case-functive.jpg
PUR Purposive iä / uä Ithkuil-case-purposive.jpg TFM Transformative ae Ithkuil-case-transformative.jpg
TRA Transmissive ie / oë Ithkuil-case-benefactive.jpg CLA Classificative ea Ithkuil-case-classificative.jpg
DFR Deferential ie / oë RSL Resultative eo
CRS Contrative ëu Ithkuil-case-contrastive.jpg CSM Consumptive
TSP Transpositive uö / iö Ithkuil-case-transpositive.jpg CON Concessive öe Ithkuil-case-concessive.jpg
CMM Commutative uo / io Ithkuil-case-commutative.jpg AVR Aversive oe Ithkuil-case-aversive.jpg
CMP Comparative ue / eö Ithkuil-case-comparative.jpg CVS Conversive öa Ithkuil-case-conversive.jpg
CSD Considerative ua / aö Ithkuil-case-considerative.jpg SIT Situative oa Ithkuil-case-situative.jpg

The Functive case (FUN) marks

The Transformative case (TFM) marks

The Classificative case (CLA) marks

The Resultative case (RSL) marks

The Consumptive case (CSM) marks

The Concessive case (CON) marks

The Aversive case (AVR) marks

The Conversive case (CVS) marks

The Situative case (SIT) marks

Relational[edit | edit source]

The Referential case (REF) marks the thing being regarded or pertained to (about the weather, song of love, attitude toward men)

The Assimilative (ASI) marks something as an analogy or comparison (like a butterfly, as if he were a child)

The Essive case (ESS) marks (our only hope, as the child he is)

The Correlative case (COR) marks (career goals, soup of the day, direction of the road, elapsed time relative to the distance determines the winner, sex and/in art, years of wonder, clown planet, spacial coordinate, political economy, dangerous situation)

The Compositive case (CPS) marks

The Comitative case (COM) marks

The Utilitative case (UTL) marks

The RelAtive case (RLT) marks

The Activative case (ACT) marks

The Descriptive case (DSP) marks

The Predicative case (PRD) marks

The Mediative case (MED) marks

The Conductive case (CNV) marks

The Interdependent case (IDP) marks

The Transpositive case (TSP) marks

The Conjunctive case (CNJ) marks

The Abessive case (ABE) marks

The Dependent case (DEP) marks

The Provisional case (PVS) marks

The Postulative case (PTL) marks

The Derivative case (DER) marks

The Exceptive case (EXC) marks

The Vocative case (VOC) marks direct address of something. (oh you!, hey Arnold!)

REF Referential a’a Ithkuil-case-referential.jpg ACT Activative a’i Ithkuil-case-activative.jpg
ASI Assimilative ä’ä Ithkuil-case-assimilative.jpg DSC Descriptive a’u
ESS Essive e’e Ithkuil-case-essive.jpg TRM Terminative e’i
COR Correlative ë’ë Ithkuil-case-correlative.jpg SEL Selective e’u Ithkuil-case-episodic.jpg
CPS Compositive i’i Ithkuil-case-compositive.jpg CFM Conformative ë’i
COM Comitative ö’ö Ithkuil-case-comitative.jpg DEP Dependent o’u Ithkuil-case-dependent.jpg
UTL Utilitative o’o Ithkuil-case-utilitative.jpg PRD Predicative o’i Ithkuil-case-predicative.jpg
REL Relative u’u VOC Vocative u’i Ithkuil-case-vocative.jpg

Spatio-Temporal[edit | edit source]

The Locative case (LOC) marks the location where something occurs or is situated at / in / on / by

The Attendant case (ATD) marks whatever is present at something, making it vaguely involved as a witness bearing memory or even reacting to it (test before him; shout before her)

The Allative case (ALL) marks where something approaches toward (into the light)

The Ablative case (ABL) marks where something recedes from (from straight up)

The Orientative case (ORI) marks the interface or front/head end of something in motion (papers strewn about the desk, go toboggan-ward, he descending feet-first)

The Interrelative case (IRL) marks a spaciotemporal reference (behind him, relative to when my work shift ends)

The Intrative case (INV) marks a spaciotemporal boundary (between the corners, as of the announcement, until nightfall)

The Navigative case (NAV) marks something relative to which a vector or trajectory occurs (down the street, along the middle of the room)

The default navigative vector for describing positions is the arrow pointing from the sunrise to the sunset. The X-axis points north perpendicular to this vector and the Z-axis points up, starting at whatever is marked by the IRL case.

LOC Locative i’a Ithkuil-case-locative.jpg CNR Concursive a’o Ithkuil-case-concursive.jpg
ATD Attendant i’ä ASS Assessive a’e Ithkuil-case-assessive.jpg
ALL Allative i’e Ithkuil-case-allative.jpg PER Periodic e’a Ithkuil-case-periodic.jpg
ABL Ablative i’ë Ithkuil-case-ablative.jpg PRO Prolapsive e’o Ithkuil-case-prolapsive.jpg
ORI Orientative ë’u Ithkuil-case-orientative.jpg PCV Precursive e’ë Ithkuil-case-precursive.jpg
IRL Interrelative u’ö PCR Postcursive ö’e Ithkuil-case-postcursive.jpg
INV Intrative u’o ELP Elapsive o’e Ithkuil-case-elapsive.jpg
NAV Navigative u’a Ithkuil-case-navigative.jpg PLM Prolimitive o’a Ithkuil-case-prolimitive.jpg

The Concursive case (CNR) marks the time during which something occurs (during empanada brunch)

The Assessive case (ASS) marks a unit ratio of time or space (three per hour, five for every answer)

The Periodic case (PER) marks the span or timeframe over which something nonconsecutive occurs (learn it in a week, throughout his childhood)

The Prolapsive case (PRO) marks how long something occurs (for seven minutes, for a painting session)

The Precursive case (PCV) marks the time before which something occurs (before the wedding)

The Postcursive case (PCR) marks the time after which something occurs. (after the divorce)

The Elapsive case (ELP) marks the duration between the present and an event in the past or future. (a month ago, two generations from now)

The Prolimitive case (PLM) marks a spaciotemporal boundary before which something occurs. (within a minute, by the end of her rebellious phase)

Exercises[edit | edit source]

  • What case would you use for OBJ/3-STA-[D]-UNI/ASO and why? What about CSV/2-STA-[D]-MSS/CSL?
  • Translate "I run with my legs" versus "I run with him".

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