Invariant Tasks: Skill Builder Practice

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Back to Topic:Instructional Design > Cognitive behaviors > Invariant Tasks > Define > Learn > Teach > Tactics > Try It

Source: Invariant Tasks by Charles M. Reigeluth. Used by Permission.


InvariantTryIt.png


Skill Builder Instructions: This is your opportunity to try the skills covered in this section of the lesson. As the Wikiversity is a collaborative learning space, you will contribute your original ideas to the work of those who have come before you by enhancing and adding to the possible responses within the case scenario laid out below. Are you saying to yourself, "...but, isn't looking at the answers from a fellow learner the same as cheating?" Not in this case. In fact, contributing your original ideas while participating with fellow learners and building upon their work is the intended goal of this Skill Builder exercise. The desired outcome is to build an ever evolving working document filled with not just one possible response to each question, but a host of instructional strategies that you can use on your next instructional design project. Have fun and get creative!


What to teach? How to teach it?[edit]

Imagine a friend of yours, Jennifer, has just been hired to tutor a sixth grader, Sam. She's all excited, because it's her first tutoring job. However, she's very worried, too, because she has never tutored before. She has come to you for advice. You had just read somewhere that the most important concerns in any instruction are "what to teach" and "how to teach it". Let's assume that Jennifer has already found out that Sam is supposed to learn the names of the first seven Presidents of the United States. So let's turn our attention to "how to teach it". Based on the need to create strong links within memory, what would you say are the most important instructional strategies you could suggest to your friend? Think about it, click "edit" for this section, and add your answer below:

  • Last name or both names? Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Adams, Jackson. A mnemonic will give WAJMMAJ, so a mnemonic seems problematic (at least at the start) because Sam may remember the names but mix up the order. I would suggest flash cards, 3 sets: names, numbers 1-7 and face pictures. Give Sam the name and number cards which he could lie out face up, or hold up like cards. Jennifer could put down a face, Sam could say to guess or say and put down the names and numbers with the face till he got it right. Place 3 cards that go together to the side, till Sam built up a visual list of face, name number in order. Jennifer should know something about each person to help Sam remember them and they could talk about them as people. 3 of these faces are also on money, which could also be shown. Jennifer and Sam could play different games with the cards till Sam could recite the names in order. Then if necessary together they could make up some system for remembering the names in order, a song, mnemonic, whatever Sam found easy. Markanna (discusscontribs) 19:40, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Because Sam is a six grader, he might not have a lot prior knowledge to be connected with the new knowledge of the Presidents' names. So, I would suggest using mnemonic. The "make a phrase or sentence" strategy seems to be a good fit in this case as he would need to become able to say full names of the Presidents. Probably making a song consists of the names would be good. Singing a song is much more enjoyable than trying to memorize names. Yet, by singing the song again and again, the Presidents' names would go into the long term memory. Kei (discusscontribs) 04:53, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would have Jennifer tell Sam to take the first letter of the President's last names and arrange them to make a mnemonic device. The letters could spell a real word or a nonsense word...like the ROY G BIV. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:01, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would break the presidents’ names down in chucks in a rap song. Yo yo, let’s do the president wrap...There was George Washington, John Adams...Thomas Jefferson & James Madison, yeah...Followed by James Monroe...With John Quincy Adams & Andrew Jackson bringing up the rear, uh huh! So, they would have opportunities each day to sing the President rap so they could repeat the names with the beat of the rap. He can download the song on his ipod and listen to it all week. They do this for a week, and on Friday he gets to practice by filling in a cloze activity with the president’s names missing. Sam gets practice filling it in with feedback from his tutor. gdysard 20:30 (EST), 15 Feburary 2014
  • I agree that Sam, as a 6th grader, most likely does not have a context in which to fit the names of the first seven presidents of the US. Therefore, I would most likely start with trying to build a context by talking about the current president (who is it, what do they do, etc). Then, after there is a context - I would point out that there have been a lot of presidents and we are going to remember the first seven. I really liked the idea others have had about flash cards with pictures and names. I would have Sam line up these cards, then mix them up, then line them up, (etc) until he is able to do it without mistakes. Then, I would take away the picture cards, and have him write the names on paper until he could do it without mistakes. Megablev (discusscontribs) 05:58, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Phonebein 18:33, 29 March 2007 (UTC) I think the instructional strategy I would use would be to create a funny rhyme using some or all of the parts of the president's names.
  • I would adapt the flash card method to create a memory game. I would create two index cards for each president. A picture of the president and his full name would be printed on card #1 (e.g., George Washington). I would attach the same picture of GW and the number 1 to card #2. I would do this for all seven presidents. After presenting the information, I would review/practice with Sam by laying out the cards and playing memory. Hatch.nicole 18:04, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • I would encourage Sam to create a mnemonic device to help memorize the names of the Presidents in order of when they served in that capacity. Smccorma 02:49, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • I think I would like to tell Sam about the famous stories or facts of each president, for example, George Washington and the cherry tree story, John Adams was the first President to live in the newly built White House etc. I think this can help Sam to have meaningful memory for each President. And then ask Sam to use some key words from these stories and facts to remember the first seven presidents. Mayue 21:51, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would like to modify a pop song, making its lyrics a very brief introduction of each president in a certain order (This idea comes from a lady who teaches history with music videos :p). Cartoon pictures of presidents are shown with the song. After playing the song for several times, I would also like to give Sam a little bit challenge, which is within his ZPD. For example, ask whether he's confident of his memorization. Give him 5 minutes to review names, and let him recall as many names as he can. If he's studying with other kids, a competition may make him more exciting. Shuya Xu 23:59, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would present Sam with the list of seven presidents in order, then ask him to recite it twice, then ask him to think of a one-sentence story using the presidents' last names in order. For example: Washington asked Adams to pay a Jefferson to send a cab for Madison and Monroe, but forgot Adams and Jackson. Then I would remove the list from view and ask him to write and recite his story. Kevmcgra 17:04, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • For teaching names, I think the best way is to always have Sam hear and speak out the names. Putting these names into lyrics, singing it to Sam or having Sam sing it is a great idea. Both Shuya and Kelvin have mentioned this methods above, but I want to emphasize that in order to maximize the memorization effectiveness, Jennifer should consider whether the lyrics make sense to Sam. Use existing lyrics which Sam loves and are related to his previous knowledge is important. In addition, besides practice and repetition, Jennifer's immediate feedback to Sam's recall and recognition is also indispensable to ensure the learning outcomes. Zhaomeng 01:00, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would first present the seven names of the presidents according to their order, and let Sam know a mnemonic device that I created by using the first one of two consonant(s) of their names. Then I would make Sam play a matching game where Sam needs to match 7 names to 7 numbered orders until Sam can complete all 7 matches without error successfully (e.g. 1st - Washington, 2nd - Adams...)Yeolhuh 03:41, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I like having a mnemonic device with first letters of the presidents' names in order, and we can have a game that students need to put the presidents in order with their names provided (recognition). After a few successful trials, I will ask students to recall the presidents' names from the first to the seventh. Dablee 03:47, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer could focus on Sam's "mental process" that makes connections between the first seven presidents (new information) and his prior knowledge. For example, they can choose a unique letter from each president's name to represent the person and make it an acronym/mnemonics (from the earliest to the latest order so Sam won't be confused with the timeline), and then make a fun sentence out of it with 7 words that Sam knows ("prior knowledge") according to the same acronym. In doing so Sam selects meaningful information and organizes existing knowledge. Sam's prior knowledge will play a vital role when she recalls all the information (fun sentence -> acronym -> the order of the presidents -> names); the new information is assimilated into the existing knowledge. At the same time, memory can be enhanced by practices or with feedback. Y.Zhang 07:27, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I also like using mnemonic devices when dealing with names. However, in the case of the Presidents it is important to remember both their first and last name. For this, I would suggest Jennifer create a story that incorporates the first seven President's name. This story would strengthen the connection to encoding the new knowledge into long-term memory Mikahugh 18:58, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would suggest that Jennifer create flashcards with the name and picture of each president on the front of a card and their number order on the back. She could present these cards in order and have Sam repeat. A mnemonic story could be created and Sam could draw a picture of the story to help remember. Madison and Monroe would need to be used as actual names in the story since they are both M names and fall right next to each other. Also, noting to Sam that J comes before Q might help him to remember the order of the Adams presidents. Jpankin (discusscontribs) 19:10, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would suggest a simple song, like Ten Little Indians. "One George Washington, Two John Adams, Three Thomas Jefferson, President, Four ~ ... Seven US President. " Songd (discusscontribs) 21:51, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would recommend to Jennifer that she utilize a mnemonic technique for instruction. First, she should create an ordered list of who the first seven presidents are. Second, she should take the first letter of each president's name and create a phrase or sentence where the first letter of each word corresponds to the first letter of the first name of each president's last name. (For example, "My Very Earnest Mother Just Served Us Nine Pickles" to remember the order of the planets from the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.). Once this has been done, Jennifer and the student should practice the mnmonic in use. Jennifer should utilize both motivational and informational feedback when tutoring in this activity. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:26, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • In this situation, Adam must remember and perform a list of 14 words (2X7). Therefore it is an “ordered list.” Information Processing Theory dictates that this information must be encoded so that it can be passed on to long-term memory. Because the list is too long to remain in short-term memory for long enough for it to be passed on to long term memory, it must be encoded into a different/simpler schema for it’s easy retrieval. There are several different methods to do this. As “Markana” stated however, memorizing the letters of their last names might be difficult because they are mostly consonants. I would therefore try to come up with different phrases that included the president’s first and last names. For example: Grape Wine Juice And The Jester Jump More than Jupiter’s Moons. Elbow8703 22:42, 24 February 2014 (UTC)

ADD YOUR ANSWER ABOVE THIS BULLET POINT. SIGN IT WITH YOUR NAME USING THE SIGNATURE WIKICODE Phonebein 17:57, 18 December 2011 (UTC)

What are the recommended teacher actions?[edit]

What should Jennifer be doing while Sam is stating the names of the first seven Presidents of the United States? Should she just sit there or should she do something? What do you think she should do? Think about it, click "edit" for this section, and add your answer below:

  • Jennifer could give both informational ("yes" "good!" "mmmmm...?" "are you sure that's Jefferson?") and motivational ("Sam you are soo smart") feedback during the flashcard game as above. She could also say the names with him or repeat them after them when he recites them in order.Markanna (discusscontribs) 19:46, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • As above, I believe it is a good idea to create a song consists of the names of the Presidents, and get Sam to sing the song. I guess he would not enjoy sining if Jennifer does not sing with him. So, she should sing! :) Kei (discusscontribs) 04:57, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Should could be holding up a green sheet of construction paper for every correct response and a red sheet of construction paper for an incorrect response. For three correct responses in a row, she could reward Same with an M&M. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:04, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • For encouragement and encouragement, she should sing the rap song with him each time. He can speak and also hear himself and his tutor singing the rap. During the cloze activity, she can encourage him to sign the rap to himself. She can give him immediate feedback if he puts the wrong name in and provide stickers on the ones he gets right. They practice this until he can fill out the cloze activity on a Friday independently. gdysard 20:35, 15 February 2014 (EST)
  • Hold up large format pictures of the President with the name under the picture in large letters.
  • When it's Sam's turn to play the memory game, he will turn over a card. If it's George Washington, Jennifer will ask, "Which president was George Washington?" When he correctly responds, "George Washington was the 1st president," Jennifer will say "Correct, good job" and give Sam permission to find the other card. If Sam turns over the card with the number 1, Jennifer will ask, "Who was the first president of the U.S.?" and Sam will have to answer George Washington before finding the matching card. If Sam can't answer Jennifer's questions, she will tell him the correct answer before he chooses the second card. Hatch.nicole 18:11, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • To increase motivation and provide feedback for the learner, Jennifer can give "thumbs up" or "thumbs down" after each response. This will help the learner to assess how well they are doing and help to correct any incorrect responses. Smccorma 02:53, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • I think when Sam sating the first president George Washington, Jennifer could add “cherry tree” to strengthen Sam’s memory of the first president. And of course Jennifer can uses smile, or “thumb up” as her body language or “Good Job” to give Sam the feedback that he is doing well. Mayue 21:59, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer can nod and say "yes" each time Sam writes the correct name in order. She can offer praise when he finishes, such as "I knew you could do it." If he writes a funny one-sentence story, she can laugh at the result. Kevmcgra 17:33, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • It's better for Jennifer to give feedback when Sam is stating names. She can tell the right or wrong immediately after each name. Say "yes" with some praises, or say "no" with some encouragement like "you're close". When Sam has problem with some name, Jennifer can prompt him with the memorization strategies they used in previous learning process. It is also a good time to increase Sam's motivation by making the recalling process more fun, such as playing card games as Nicole suggested above. Shuya Xu 17:48, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Of course she should motivate Sam and provide feedback. When Sam can't come up right names, give hints to help him memorize. When Sam correctly recalls those names, give praise or rewards to reinforce him. Zhaomeng 01:32, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer needs to observe students' performance and provide motivational and informational feedback. For example, if a student gets something wrong, she needs to indicate what's wrong and encourage the learner to try it again. If the student gets all right, she can say something like "You got all of them right! Nicely done!" Dablee 03:39, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer should keep encouraging Sam that Sam is doing a good job and can do it since Sam may go through several trials to get all 7 matches right without making a mistake. Yeolhuh 03:47, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer could consider saying "yes!" (confirmation) or "great job!" (praise) if Sam answers correctly as to motivate him. On the other hand encouragement and instant correction can be provided when the answer is wrong. Activities can be showing presidents' pictures (w/ years for the order) as to let Sam call each president's name or playing jigsaw with him by giving him seven cards with presidents' names in a random order and ask Sam to place them in the right spot on a timeline. Y.Zhang 08:33, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • While Sam is first learning, Jennifer should provide feedback on if Sam is stating the names in the correct order. Jennifer should also provide encouragement both when Sam answers correctly "That's Correct!" and when Sam answers incorrectly "Try again, I know you can do it." Mikahugh 19:05, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • When practicing Jennifer should give immediate feedback. If Sam gives the correct response she should give positive, encouraging feedback. If Sam gets it wrong Jennifer should give informational feedback, "No, Madison was the fourth president." As time goes on practice should focus on the ones Sam keeps missing. Jpankin 19:19, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • First couple of times, she can sing a song together "One George Washington, Two John Adams, Three Thomas Jefferson, President, Four ~ ... Seven US President. " After that, let Sam sing the song alone, and give him a feedback. Songd (discusscontribs) 21:54, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • While Sam is stating the names of the first seven Presidents of the United States she should provide feedback, both informational and motivational. Informational feedback will be correction if Sam is wrong, or confirmation or no correction if Sam is right. If Sam is wrong it will be necessary to provide customized feedback to help Sam correct his/her behavior in order to do better next time. The motivational feedback that Jennifer should provide should encourage Same if s/he's incorrect or praise (or reward) Sam if s/he's correct. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:30, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Like many have already indicated - I believe that Jennifer should provide feedback to Sam. At the beginning, when Sam is likely to be making the most mistakes (and therefore be more apt to quit) the feedback should be primarily motivational and constant. Perhaps the first success could even take on a reward role (small piece of candy, etc). As he begins to get more comfortable, the feedback should stay consistent, but she could begin to without a "right" or "wrong" in order for him to think through and be sure of his answer instead of relying solely on her feedback to know if he is on the right track. Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:05, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • To make sure Adam learns the phrase, it would be good to break it into chunks, present it visually and verbally, give him a chance to practice it, and give him feedback during practice. To give feedback, it might be a good idea to provide visual cues during practice. For example, memory cards with just images or a single letter on them.

Elbow8703 10:46, 24 February 2014 (UTC)


ADD YOUR ANSWER ABOVE THIS BULLET POINT. SIGN IT WITH YOUR NAME USING THE SIGNATURE WIKICODE Phonebein 17:57, 18 December 2011 (UTC)

What about when the learner gets stuck?[edit]

Picture Jennifer asking Sam to name the Presidents. If he only knows who the first one is (George Washington), would you start by asking him to name all of them? That would be silly. So what other guideline should you give Jennifer? If this all seems obvious, it shows you have already picked up an intuitive understanding of some of the most basic principles of instruction from your observations or studies. Congratulations! But beware that we are quickly moving on to less obvious principles. Think about it, click "edit" for this section, and add your answer below:

  • It wasn't clear whether Sam had to learn all 7 presidents last names (7) or first and last names (14), only in this section do you mention both first and last name. I am reading Kei's response below and agree, before starting the activity Jennifer and Sam should talk about what a president is to build up his schema, and maybe start with showing George on the dollar bill. If the game I devised is too challenging (14 names) it's easy to chunk into the first 3 (WAJ), then the next 2 (MM) and then the last 2 (AJ), before playing with all 7 cards at the same time. Markanna (discusscontribs) 20:07, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would advice Jennifer to give Sam information more than just the list of names. He is totally new with the Presidents other than George Washington. He does not have the schema for the other Presidents. So, if she gives only the list of the names, the information will quickly be lost in his long term memory. In order to make their names easier to recall, it is important for Sam to create the schema for the Presidents. In order to do so, it is good idea to give him information about the Presidents such as their achievements and personalities. Kei (discusscontribs) 05:09, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • She should chunk information into smaller pieces to make it easier to learn. She could have all seven presidents' names written on a piece of paper. Sam would put down Washington's piece of paper first and then practice with another name. Once he has two names memorized, he could add another. This is also where the mnemonic device made up of the president's first letters of their last names would come in handy. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:09, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • One way to bring emphasis is to have the tutor bring images in to help him visually see who the presidents are. So, as they sign, she flashes their picture and prompts him and tells him, George Washington. Given there is dual processing from a cognitive perspective (Paivio, 1971), we can build on both verbal associations and visual imagery since they are processed in separate channels. Thus, we can help Sam store the information both as hearing the words but also seeing the images of them. He has multiple ways to form meaning in his working memory. When he is working on the cloze activity, if he gets stuck again she can prompt him by showing him the picture. gdysard 20:39, 15 February (EST)
  • I would make the game easier for Sam by either starting with the first four presidents and then adding more presidents to the memory game or by initially playing the game by using the faces of the presidents. However, once Sam found a match, I would have him repeat out loud that George Washington is the first president, etc. Hatch.nicole 18:21, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • I would want to know what Presidents he can get correct. This would then help me to scaffold instruction to help Sam to "fill in the gaps". Perhaps he misses the first four Presidents, but he gets the last 3 correct. Then we would work backward to number one. Since the sequence is important, I want to know what part of the sequence he can get on his own. The mnemonic device should help him to get the first letters of the last names of all of the Presidents in order, but perhaps he is having difficulty remembering the name beyond just the initial letter. (For instance, he knows "A" for the second President, but can't remember "Adams".) In a situation like that, then I would encourage him to practice writing the names of the Presidents in order 5-10 times per day until the assessment in school. Smccorma 02:58, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • Once Sam got stuck, I would suggest Jennifer not give the answer directly, she should use some hints to remind Sam of the president, maybe repeat the story or facts again, I also think Jennifer should make the question consist with the knowledge information. For example, use my method; I would suggest Jennifer to always use Cherry Tree instead of other stories and facts as the hint for first presidents. Besides, always be patient to Sam, for example, it is a bad idea for Jennifer to say “I just told you the story”, “How can you not remember these simple names”.Mayue 22:28, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer can ask Sam to recall seeing the list of presidents and ask: can you see the next name on the list in your mind? If he's still stuck, she can ask: Can you see the first letter of the next name? If you can't, make a guess. Alternatively, she can ask him to recall when he thought up his one-sentence story and ask: what comes next in your story? If he cannot recall with precision, ask him to guess and assure him he will get another try. Finally, she can offer Sam the prompt of the first letter of the next name on the list.Kevmcgra 17:33, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • After Sam's first try to state names, Jennifer can see how many Sam can recall correctly and how others go wrong or be completely out of his memory. If Sam can recall some related hints of other names, then Jennifer could help Sam review and remember more names gradually. If Sam can only remeber a small amount of names, and that has nothing to do with the memorization tactics they used, it probably means the tactics don't work well. Jennifer can find some other ways to help Sam remember presidents. Shuya Xu 18:41, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • When the leaner got stuck--only recall one name after being taught 7 names or more, Jennifer should first think what caused this less effectiveness.If Sam really learned hard and has not achieved ability to recall such amount of names at a time, then have him memorize a smaller amount of names at a time, like two at a time, repeat them and gradually add on new names, and always encourage him once he achieved small progress.If Sam's poor performance is due to his less interests or because he doesn't put effort on learning these names, then Jennifer should think about changing her teaching strategies to attract Sam and give him even more challenging tasks, like "if you can recall of these 7 presidents' names in 5 minutes, I will buy you a ice-cream" (I assume Sam likes ice-cream). Zhaomeng 01:53, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • When a learner gets stuck, I would chunk the information into smaller pieces and let the student try to master each piece first and then combined all the pieces together. Dablee 03:54, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would ask Sam to write down any names or any parts of mnemonic device that Same can think of regardless of the order. Then, ask him to attempt to think of the mnemonic device that he was taught by Jennifer based on the information that Sam could think of. If that's not successful, I would give the rest of the names with orders, and let him modify the mnemonic device or come up with a new mnemonic device from Sam's own logic.Yeolhuh 03:57, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If Sam gets stuck, Jennifer probably knows which presidents Sam fails to recall. Repetition can be a tactic in the follow-up drill/review for the names Sam doesn't remember by repeating the list of names for several times or the word mnemonic (mentioned earlier in my answer to the first question in this section) with Sam may be helpful. In this way, Sam may recall that there are names associated with the mnemonic. Jennifer may also write the mnemonic down to visualize the "hints". Of course, nice and encouraging words as instant feedback are necessary. Y.Zhang 08:46, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If Jennifer realizes that Sam is only remembering the first President, Jennifer should revisit the tactic used during the initial lesson. If they created a rhyme or used a mnemonic device, Jennifer should remind Sam of this and have him repeat it several times. Jennifer should then resume quizzing Sam on the Presidents. Mikahugh 19:08, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • As others have said, I'd tell Jennifer to work with a few names at a time. Later spend more times with the presidents on which Sam gets stuck. Jpankin 19:25, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Jennifer can let Sam sing a song just three president first, "One George Washington, Two John Adams, Three Thomas Jefferson, President." If it's not working well, Sam can try the first name only version. "One George, Two John, ~ " Songd (discusscontribs) 21:56, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Depending on how Sam is getting stuck will shift my recommendations to Jennifer. For example, if Sam is not remembering any of the Presidents names it may be time to create a more memorable mnmonic, such as a story to go with the phrase or signing the phrase in connection with a song. If however, Sam is remembering the names of the Presidents but messing up the order or forgetting only one or two, I would suggest chunking the list of Presidents into smaller groups. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:35, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • If Sam gets stuck, Jennifer can chunk the content or add more scaffolding until he begins to have success again. Starting with all the names in front of him, and simply having to order them should help him get started. Once he has the image of the cards in a row, it will be easier to recall. However, if he gets frustrated and stuck when trying to recall, she can pull the cards back out and have him order them once or twice, then go back to reciting them (without looking at the cards). Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:09, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I think that as Keary mentioned, at this point chunking would be the best method to use. Once he has mastered one section, then he could move on. This would also help with motivation. Also, as I stated earlier, visual cues could help during practice as well. Elbow8703 10:51, 24 February 2014 (UTC)

ADD YOUR ANSWER ABOVE THIS BULLET POINT. SIGN IT WITH YOUR NAME USING THE SIGNATURE WIKICODE Phonebein 17:57, 18 December 2011 (UTC)

What about larger amounts of content?[edit]

Let's assume that Sam needs to learn the names of all the Presidents of the United States instead of just seven. Forty Presidents is a lot to learn. Would you present all 40 at once and then elicit practice on all 40 at once? Think of what you would recommend to make it easier for him to learn all those names, click "edit" for this section, and jot your answer below:

  • 40 presidents! Sounds like Jennifer is being paid to torture not tutor Sam, unless he's going to be involved in some sort of competition. She should chunk and spread the chunks out over at least 7 sessions (weeks) with lots of recall and repition of previous learning along the way, and use different methods. I would advise her to work forwards and backwards in time, and point Sam toward an online game or resource (book, website, video, audio, puzzle) to help make it more fun and meaningful for poor Sam to remember. If his friends are having to learn too I would suggest devising some sort of mini competition or game. Maybe the names of the presidents could be written on 6-7 balls which have to be kicked or thrown in some sort of orderMarkanna (discusscontribs) 20:38, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I won't present all 40 at once. The list of 40 names should visually look intimidating and I myself would lose the confidence and motivation to memorize it. In order to get the information transferred into the long term memory, we need to transfer the information into the short term memory. Since the number of the chunks of the information could be stored in the short term memory is said to be around 7, it would be more realistic and efficient to try to memorize 7 President names at once. Kei (discusscontribs) 05:15, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I still agree that chunking is important. If he does not need to know the presidents in a specific order, he could memorize all of the presidents whose last names start with A, and then those with B...etc. If he needs to learn them in order, then having a quirky picture of each one of them could help put a picture with the names. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:13, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Chunk, Chunk, Chunk. According to Miller 1956 the key is 7 plus or minus two. Create flash cards where he learns 8 of them and then he can learn 8 more. Continue to add 8 until all 40 are easy to recall. The first 8 area always reviewed because they are put back in the stack of flash cards. They continue to build on the ones he knows and remove the ones he misses. These go into a separate pile and added back in once the ones in the pile are easily recalled. This creates a lot of repetition. gdysard 20:44 (EST) 15 February 2014
  • If Sam had to learn all 40 presidents, I would have him make regular flash cards. I would include the name of the presient on one side and the president's number on the other side. I would recommend that he chunk the information and only try to learn 10 presidents at a time. I would suggest that he practice recalling the president's name by number and vice versus. Hatch.nicole 18:27, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • Chunking will be important here. The mnemonic device will still work...but you will need to build from the beginning and add to the sentence as you grow, or create multiple mnemonic sentences. Short-term memory can only remember 5-7 "chunks" at a time. I would start with 5-7 and increase by 5-7 each time we met. Repetition will also be important, so quiz Sam multiple times each tutoring session and "surprise" him with that repetition when he is not expecting it. Smccorma 03:04, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • I won’t give the forty presidents all at once, I think maybe 6-8 for the first time is enough for Sam, and then I would give a pop quiz for Sam immediately, if Sam have trouble remembering 6-8 presidents name, I would reduce the number down to 3-4 next time, and recall the first 6-8 presidents. Based on Sam’s performance I will make plan for the third time. Mayue 22:37, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If Sam had to learn 40 names, I would use the same storytelling device, but break both the list and the lesson into smaller chunks. I would ask him to use five names at a time rather than seven, creating eight total "units." I would ask him to create three stories using the first three sets of five names, then pause for review in which he would read his three stories in succession. After review, I would ask him to turn his paper over and repeat his three stories from memory. Then I would ask him to repeat the process for the next three sets of names, but after he repeats his three stories from memory, I would ask him to repeat all six stories from memory. Finally, I would ask him to repeat the process for the final two sets of names, and ask him to end by repeating all eight stories from memory. Kevmcgra 17:47, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Chuck and group these names according to their first letters, or features of the corresponding presidents. Have Sam learn these names group by group. The most important thing here is REPETITION. According to H.Ebbinghaus' memory theory, successful retention is not only built on times of repetition, but also appropriate frequency of repetition. After Sam's first learning of a small group of names, he'd better review these names after a few minutes, an hour, several hours, a day, a week and then two weeks.Zhaomeng 02:13, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If I would have to teach Sam 40 names of the presidents, I could think of chunking the 40 into probably 5~6 pieces and use mnemonic devices for the names in each chunk as well as for the order of the 5~6 chunks.Yeolhuh 04:01, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Seems like Sam is a young learner so Jennifer probably does not want to teach all the presidents and require him to memorize their names udring one instructional session. Jennifer can appropriately "chunk" all the content by breaking content into smaller sections and categorizing them (i.e. the time in office by (half-)century etc.) in order to make the entire list more manageable for Sam to learn; and then new word mnemonic can be created for the session learning all the names.Y.Zhang 08:58, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • 40 total names to memorize is a lot. Using the previously stated method of chunking, I would also suggest Jennifer to come up with mnemonic devices for each chunk. A story that links all the chunks together would then allow Sam to order the chunks appropriately. Mikahugh 19:10, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I'd suggest to Jennifer that she break up the list of 40 into 8 groups of five names each. She could help Sam create a mnemonic phrase for each group. A chart could monitor Sam's progress and some type of reinforcement after learning each group might help keep him motivated. I'd also remind Jennifer to keep practicing the groups Sam has mastered so he doesn't forget. Jpankin (discusscontribs) 19:36, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would suggest that Jennifer can 4 Ten US President songs. Songd (discuss

contribs) 21:58, 18 February 2014 (UTC)

  • Forty names is a lot! I would suggest to Jennifer that she chunk the lessons of Presidents to memorize into groups of 7 (+/- 2). Chunking is key but so is drill and practice. Flash cards or practicing writing out the names of the Presidents in the correct order may be a good place to start. Additionally, Jennifer could create a powerpoint with memorable pictures of each President to help Sam to picture the Presidents and the previously created mnmonic. It may be good to craft a story that connects the former mnmonic for the first seven to several new mnomnics for the additional Presidents. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:40, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Ouch. Well, if I had to teach all 40 names, I agree with my colleagues - chunk the information into meaningful pieces. I don't think I would be as arbitrary as 8 groups of 5 - instead, I would try to create chunks that would be meaningful to Sam and his understanding of American history. If I couldn't find anything meaningful - then I would create the arbitrary groups. I would use the same picture card method as I have previously described, however, I would do it for each group. Then all together. Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:12, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Once again, as many have already have stated, I think that chunking is the name of the game here. If you gave him 7 presidents to memorize a day for example, he could memorize all of them within a week. Also it might be very boring for him, even if you WERE to give him mnemonic phrases to memorize. Therefore I would have him make up these phrases himself and THEN memorize them. This motivational strategy will provide ownership and entertainment. Elbow8703 10:55, 24 February 2014 (UTC)

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How to prompt the learner?[edit]

Let's assume the names are difficult for Sam. What else can you recommend to help him remember the names in the first chunk? Keep in mind the need to strengthen those links, click "edit" for this section, and jot your answer below:

  • I think my first activity - the flash cards - would have to be played again but perhaps in a different way, perhaps Sam could teach Jennifer instead. GW, JA, TJ, JM, JM, JQA, AJ - these initials are repetitive already so perhaps a mnemonic or two or three phrases from the first letters would help. He could also think of two words to describe George Washington starting with g and w, etc. Markanna (discusscontribs) 20:48, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • As Sam is a six grader, he might have a number of friends. I would suggest showing him the list of the President names and asking him if he has friends whose names are same as the names of the Presidents. If he says "yes," then, she can create a document which lists the names of the friends and the Presidents, and their pictures. In this way, Sam can utilize the memory already in his long term memory and the learning gets easier. The strategy would also help him connect the new knowledge with his existing knowledge. Kei (discusscontribs) 05:22, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would have Same write each name on a flash card and say the name, and spell it out, as he wrote it on the card. Then, I would have him arrange the names in alphabetical order, saying the name on the cards each time he moves them. Once they were alphabetized, I would have him write out the cards in the order as he sees them, once again saying the names as he writes them down. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:17, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I included this part in my previous post but I would have him review the first stack of cards after he gets the second stack of cards. He can continue to add to his pile and each day he pile is reviewed. gdysard 20:50 (EST) 15 February 2014
  • I would offer encouragement and have him keep reviewing the first set of 10 cards. Once he finishes memorizing the first 10 names and moves on to the second set, I would make sure that he occassionally returns to the first 10 to review. Hatch.nicole 18:39, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • I would encourage Sam to engage in repetition-either by writing the list of names over and over again until he's got the names down,or to come up with his own "rap" to link music with the names. Smccorma 03:10, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • Since I use stories and facts to build links with presidents, I would suggest Jennifer to use some picture like Cherry tree/white house to show to Sam, and ask Sam to write the name of corresponding president on the picture. Or maybe Jennifer could draw these pictures (Cherry tree/white house) with Sam if time permitted.Mayue 22:42, 2 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If Sam is still having trouble, I would ask him to create a short story playing on the sound of each name, such as "Madison gets mad at his son," "Monroe rows on Mondays," or "Jefferson moves in a jiffy." Then if he is stuck while trying again, Jennifer can ask: Who rows on Mondays? Who moves in a jiffy? Kevmcgra 18:12, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Repetition would be helpful for memorization. I'd like to suggest Jennifer to help Sam review those forgotten ones. Then let Sam recall again, and see whether Sam remembers more. Names to review may gradually decrease. Jennifer can also randomly repeat some names that Sam has successfully recalled, in case they may be forgotten after a while. Considering I suggested modifying pop songs, this review and repeat activity can be done in that multimedia way. Shuya Xu 19:39, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I think there is no kid who doesn't like playing games. To promote Sam learning achievement, Jennifer can apply games as a methods to strengthen Sam's memory. Based on my observation, many kids like "racing games" (there are many steps on a map, players toss dices to race on the map),and they like to draw the racing map on their own. So, Jennifer could have Sam draw circles or grids as steps, and put numbers in these steps, and then race on the map with Sam. Once each of them toss the dice and move on to a step, they need to recall the president of this step, like Abraham Lincoln is for number 16. Only when the recall is correct, they can stay, otherwise they have to step back to a number for which they remember the president's name. If this game is too challenging at the very beginning, some hint can be put on the map, like the first letter of the names, or pictures of the presidents. Zhaomeng 02:35, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would split the 40 names into 5 to 8 pieces, and tackle it piece by piece in order by letting students memorize a piece of information using a mnemonic device, provide practices and feedback. After they are done with all the pieces, I would put them all together and provide practices and feedback. Dablee 03:57, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • If Sam is having difficulties remembering names using mnemonic device, I would ask Sam to create a short story having all the names in the first chunk as characters in the story so that Sam may feel more comfortable with their names. In doing so, Sam can still use the mnemonic device but the story he created by himself can prompt their names.Yeolhuh 04:06, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Giving prompts to Sam such as showing pictures of the presidents, the timeline of the U.S. president, or verbally prompting the word mnemonic Sam and/or Jennifer created together so that Sam can better respond. Meanwhile, scheduling review on a regular/per session basis will work too so Sam can better commit information to his long-term memory. Y.Zhang 09:16, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Some kind of visual representation or diagram might be beneficial to Sam. If he continues to struggle with memorizing the names using mnemonic devices and stories, I would suggest Jennifer switch tactics and work on getting Sam to associate the Presidents first names to their last. Once Sam has been able to remember each Presidents' name, Jennifer could then progress to relating the names to their number. Mikahugh 19:16, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would help Jennifer finds many different ways to practice the first group of names. This could be done with physical flashcards or computer flashcards, self-practice and practice with others, writing the names in order, etc. A simple drag and drop game can be created using software like Captivate or Storyline with a variety of reinforcement techniques to add surprise when the names are in the correct order. Jpankin (discusscontribs) 19:44, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I'd suggest that Jennifer can help Sam record his own song. Sam can play back his recorded voice, and then he can modify it. Songd (discusscontribs) 21:59, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • If Sam is having a difficult time with the names I would first suggest watching a video or listening to an educational song that repeats the names of the Presidents many times over. Or Jennifer could create a powerpoint with memorable pictures of each President with their names in bold colors to help Sam to picture the Presidents. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:44, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would start by trying to stimulate recall using context, but assuming that there was no context to use as a trigger... If reciting the names is an issue, I would have Jennifer use the picture cards to prompt Sam (cover the name, show the picture). If this didn't work, I would have him write the name he is struggling to remember ten times. Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:17, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I agree with Keary and smccorma, it is important to provide practice (oral). The best way to do this I think is flashcards. When the names of the presidents are written on each one. Sam (alone or prompted by you) could practice saying the words one after the other until he is familiar with them. When he begins to get better, speed could be increased to set a higher challenge. Elbow8703 23:00, 24 February 2014 (UTC)

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What is often more powerful and efficient than repetition to facilitate memorization?[edit]

However, aside from motivational strategies such as games to increase the learner's effort to memorize the information, there is another feature which can be even more powerful and efficient than repetition to facilitate memorization. Try to think of what it is, click "edit", and write your answer below:

  • I think applying the information to a practical task is better than rote learning by itself, or remembering through associating the president with something else like assassination or a war. This is why in the first lesson I had Jennifer use pictures and $ bills, as well as discuss what the actual people were known for with Sam. There are some quizzes online like http://www.sporcle.com/games/g/presidents Markanna (discusscontribs) 22:08, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I really love the friend name strategy written above by myself. In general, friends occupy really a large part of a six grader's memory, both in good and bad ways. This strategy should be really a powerful and efficient way to memorize the President names. Of course, if Sam does not have friends whose names are same as the names of the Presidents, the strategy won't work! In that case, still, he can try out the names of the cartoon characters or actors he like. Kei (discusscontribs) 05:37, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Immediate feedback and positive reinforcements could encourage Sam to keep going and wanting to learn more. Find out what motivates him like candy, stickers, coins, etc. and use those as rewards. Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:20, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • You could make the flash card pile a game where Sam is provided points for the number of presidents he can memorize. Each session the points are counted up and if he is between a certain number he gets to choose from the magic chest that is full of games and tricks. gdysard 20:53 (EST), 15 February 2014
  • Sam could become the teacher and attempt to teach what he is trying to learn to a younger sibling or friend. This would allow him to provide positive feedback on what the correct answers are, and to provide assistance when the wrong answers are given. This will reinforce the correct answers to Sam and give him an opportunity to be the "expert". Smccorma 03:17, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • Along with mnemonics and chunking, the instructor can create visual cues to tie individual names, or groups of names, to an image; conversely, the instructor can ask the learner to draw an image that ties the names together. For example, to remember "Monroe rows on Mondays," the learner could be asked to draw a stick figue in a rowboat next to a calendar. In the story-creating examples above, the learner could be asked to draw a picture or image illustrating the story he/she creates using five or seven names. Kevmcgra 18:28, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Although it has been mentioned in many of the above discussions, I would like to say mnemonics as a more powerful strategy than simple repetition. Memorizing with mnemonics may be the accretion of schema, or a relation being established between new and prior knowledge. Shuya Xu 19:59, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I would say mnemonic might be an efficient way to facilitate Sam remember all those seven names, of course there are many ways to create different mnemonics, like acronyms, a rhymed song, sentence, but it is also very important for Jennifer to find out what works for Sam the best, maybe Sam prefer visual other than audio. In this way, maybe it is better to show Sam some pictures that related with 7 presidents. Mayue 01:03, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • The methods I've suggested (game and flashcards) require a lot of repetition. I suppose if Jennifer and Sam have the time and creativity, they could write a song together that incorporates all 40 presidents in the correct order. Writing the song would help Sam memorize the names and practicing the song would help even more. Hatch.nicole 01:36, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Role play! Jennifer could first read stories of the presidents whose names are more challenging to Sam, then ask Sam to act as the presidents in short plays, and perform to his family. This is based on Escapism of Experience Economy. Besides, Jennifer could search if there is any opportunities in the neighborhood to allow Sam work with other kids on a President Project. In this constrictive learning experience, Sam's understanding about Presidents will automatically go beyond names to a more broad and deep level. Zhaomeng 02:50, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Storytelling approach can be helpful to facilitate memorization. By creating a story using the information to be memorized, the learners can create the connections between the information using the ways they want their story to be told. That connections for storytelling can be powerful for memorization purpose as well. Yeolhuh 04:09, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer's tactics can be further enriched by adding games to the instruction. I would suggest playing games such as crosswords or Jeopardy etc. incorporating the content, review activities with repetition as well as informational and motivation feedback. [NOTE: Dr. Honebein: the video link you provided for "game-based learning" is not available.]Y.Zhang 09:28, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Having Sam learn about a significant event or story that occurred during the Presidents' time at the office would allow additional connections to be made with the information, rather than simple memorization of names. Sam could then be put into the teacher's role and teach Jennifer about the events. Mikahugh 19:19, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • In the previous section I suggested that Jennifer might create a simple drag and drop game which can be created using software like Captivate or Storyline with a variety of reinforcement techniques to add surprise. This might be more effective than simple drill and practice. A game played with others might also be helpful.Jpankin (discusscontribs) 19:49, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Sam can try a music instrument he is able to play when singing "Ten US President" Song. Songd (discusscontribs) 22:01, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Role playing, group learning, a presentation or Sam making his own powerpoint to memorize the Presidents may be more effective ways than previously suggested tutoring techniques. Learning about the Presidents backgrounds or something unique they did while in office may help further. Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:47, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Adding a relevant context to Sam for memorizing the names. Linking this knowledge to something he already has (schema). Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:19, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
  • As mentioned within the lesson, visuals can be a powerful tool to help with memorization. I think having flashcards with caricatures of the presidents could really help Sam learn them and put faces to the names. A follow up strategy could include seeing if Sam could draw the presidents. Elbow8703 23:05, 24 February 2014 (UTC)

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What about motivation?[edit]

It is hard to remember all those names, and Sam is bound to have trouble at first. What can Jennifer do to keep him from getting discouraged—to keep his attitude positive and his concentration high? High motivation translates into high effort, and that means quicker and better learning. What would you recommend to Jennifer? Think about it, click "edit", and add your answer below:

  • For a 12 year old boy to remember 40 names it would be better to connect the goal (40 correct) to something he is already motivated to achieve. Praise and rewards are useful but only to a point, he needs to see himself improving and have an intrinsic reason for wanting that. Games, quizzes and competitions may be more suitable, either he can play against himself and try to beat his own score over time, or play against Jennifer or others (with scores kept over time) or play in a team against another team of peers. Hangman and/or other word games would be good for recall and repetition. At that age I was motivated to get higher marks than one particular girl in my class, who always seemed to be smarter than me. Markanna (discusscontribs) 22:28, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • When I was a six grader, I was video gaming 8 hours a day. So, I believe in the power of games. It is usually hard to be distracted from games as they usually have time limits. I really love this website. Jennifer can give him a gift if the won the game. Kei (discusscontribs) 05:44, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would have a variety of activities for Sam to do so that he does not get bored. Keeping his interest and excitement is important. Rewards can be helpful as well as engaging activities.Khouchin (discusscontribs) 02:23, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I think the flash card pile game coupled with the rewards may keep his motivation high. In addition, the teacher can continue to offer encouragement and praise for the good work and effort gdysard 20:57 (EST), 15 February 2014
  • I think my memory game would be a good way to keep Sam's motivation high. It will also be a good final review of all 40 names. Once he finishes learning his flashcards, he and Jennifer could play a giant memory game that includes all 40 presidents. This will make sure that Sam can still remember the names when they appear out of order. And trying to beat his tutor will keep him motivated. In addition, Jennifer should provide feedback during the game, whenever Sam makes a correct match. Hatch.nicole 18:42, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
  • I would create a game for Sam so that there is a reward for him when he has the list down. (Perhaps for every name he gets correct, he earns a point. When he earns 100 points, he gets a dollar.) Motivation through rewards can be a powerful prompter and enforcer. Smccorma 03:15, 1 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
  • First, Jennifer can start by acknowledging the challenge and building Sam's confidence: I know this is a lot to tackle at once, but we'll make it easy. I know you're smart and you can do it. She can offer praise as he progresses through the lesson, such as: You're doing better than I did; Look how well you've done so far; I told you you could it, not much farther to go. She could also introduce rewards as the lesson progresses, such as: If you get this group of names correct, we'll play your favorite music while we tackle the the last group. Or she could offer something tangible, with the parent's permission: Keep going; if you can make it through the whole list, there's an ice cream bar waiting for you in the kitchen. Kevmcgra 18:43, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • In order to prevent discouragement, I would suggest Jennifer to carefully design the steps according to Sam's ability. Considering the flow theory, I think it is important to keep a balance between challenge Sam confronts and skills Sam possesses. If Sam has difficulty, Jennifer can make each chunk smaller, more materials about the same content being presented, give Sam more time to explore with guidance, and so forth. Shuya Xu 20:28, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Choose appropriate and various teaching strategies to keep Sam engaged in the learning process;adjust the challenge levels based on Sam's performance;give Sam authority to decide on how to learn;praise once progress is made,and encourage once more effort is in need. Zhaomeng 03:02, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • I think having a variety games from easy to difficult would help learners feel a sense of accomplishment along with motivational feedback. Dablee 03:59, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Given the age of Sam, concrete reward such as candies or playtime with him can be a good motivation for Sam going along with positive feedback and encouragement for his performance. Using visually appealing game that has certain goals to accomplish can also be a good motivation for Sam.Yeolhuh 04:12, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Since Sam is a six grader, so maybe he is 11-12, based on Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, usually, this age’s children is in a psychosocial crisis: Industry vs. Inferiority, according to Erikson, during this age, it is important for them to develop self-confidence. So I think Jennifer should keep in mind that it is very important to give Sam positive feedback (hand gesture, body language, words, some physical rewards) to help him build self-confidence, this is also a way to help Sam to maintain his motivation at the same time. Mayue 06:38, 4 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Except the informational feedback to tell Sam if the answer is correct, Jennifer should also give encouragement and motivational feedback, such as "you did a great job!" "it's getting even better!" or "that's alright - let's try one more time you will get it!" as a key aspect in enabling Sam to achieve his goals.Y.Zhang 09:37, 5 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Based on Sam's age, I would encourage Jennifer to reward Sam's progress with short breaks. These breaks would be seen as a reward for Sam's progress. Also, Jennifer could have a bag of M&Ms, with one piece representing each President. When Sam correctly remembers the name of the President, he can each the M&M. Mikahugh 19:22, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
  • Jennifer can use reinforcing feedback to help Sam keep going. She could also offer rewards for time on task as well as for accomplishments. Obviously the amount of time and level of accomplishment required would need to be appropriate for Sam's age and ability. Jpankin (discusscontribs) 19:52, 17 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Jennifer can record Sam's performance (sing a song with playing a music instrument) and show him the video. And then, encourage him to make a better video to share it with Sam's parents and friends. Songd (discusscontribs) 22:02, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  • I would suggest that Jennifer make a learning chart to track and show the progress Sam has made, from tutoring session to tutoring session. Encouraging Sam and reminding him of the progress he has made is a great way to help motivate him. Additionally, the reward of performing well on quizes or tests may help remind Sam that he's making progress towards the goal. Further, its important that as a tutor Jennifer creates realistic goals for Sam so that he does not get discouraged. Motivational feedback is key! Cahonen (discusscontribs) 00:50, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  • As many have already indicated, feedback and giving Sam a "What's in it for me?" will help to keep him motivated. If learning the 40 presidents means that he gets to hangout with his friends on Friday night and play video games and eat pizza, he may be more willing to put full effort into the task. Bottom line - find out what motivates Sam, and use that to help keep him going. Perhaps she can try something such as: giving a sticker for remember the first chunk, a piece of candy for the second chunk, some free time for the third chunk, etc etc, until the pizza party with friends for the full 40. Megablev (discusscontribs) 06:23, 23 February 2014 (UTC)

As Shuya Xu mentioned it would be important to make the chunks the right size so that Sam does not get discouraged and can be proud of his accomplishments. Megan and others have mentioned Behavioral Motivational factors that could help Sam--external reinforcement. However, Cognitive theory would propose to motivate through raising learner confidence and satisfaction. To do this, as mentioned above confidence will be built as Sam is able to remember the correctly chunked segments. Furthermore, satisfaction will be built as Sam moves through the different chunks and completes the task. Elbow8703 23:15, 24 February 2014 (UTC) ADD YOUR ANSWER ABOVE THIS BULLET POINT. SIGN IT WITH YOUR NAME USING THE SIGNATURE WIKICODE Phonebein 17:57, 18 December 2011 (UTC)

Exercise Synthesis[edit]

To see possible responses to this Skill Builder Exercise (prepared by the original authors of this lesson), click here: Invariant Tasks: Example. Note that these responses are purposely placed on a separate screen to provide general guidance should you become stuck, but NOT to imply a single correct response to the case scenario.


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Instructional Design Cognitive Behaviors < Back Next >