IT Service Management/Service Operation

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Service operation coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers. Service operation also manages the technology that is used to deliver and support services. Service operation includes the processes of event management, incident management, request fulfilment, problem management, and access management. Service operation also includes the functions of service desk, technical management, IT operations management, and application management.[1]

Objectives and Skills[edit]

Objectives and skills for the Service Operation portion of ITIL Foundation certification include:[2]

  • Account for the purpose, objectives and scope of service operation
  • Briefly explain what value service operation provides to the business
  • Explain the purpose, objectives, scope, basic concepts, process activities and interfaces for:
    • Incident management
    • Problem management
  • State the purpose, objectives and scope for:
    • Event management
    • Request fulfilment
    • Access management
  • Define and explain:
    • Alert
    • Event
    • Impact, urgency and priority
    • Incident
    • Known error
    • Known error database (KEDB)
    • Problem
    • Service request
    • The role of communication in service operation
    • Workaround

Readings[edit]

  1. Wikipedia: ITIL#Service operation
  2. Wikipedia: Event Management (ITIL)
  3. Wikipedia: Incident management (ITSM)
  4. Wikipedia: ITIL#Problem management
  5. Wikipedia: ITIL#Identity management
  6. Archive.org: ITIL.org: Service Operation
  7. UCISA: ITIL - Introducing Service Operation

Multimedia[edit]

  1. YouTube: Introduction to ITIL Service Operation

Activities[edit]

  1. Define the purpose, objectives and scope of service operation and explain what value service operation provides to the business.
  2. Explain the purpose, objectives, scope, basic concepts, process activities and interfaces for one or more of the following:
    • Incident management
    • Problem management
  3. State the purpose, objectives and scope for one or more of the following:
    • Event management
    • Request fulfilment
    • Access management
  4. Case Project - Continue the hypothetical organization and service desk design your team documented in the previous lesson. Add the following information to the Service Operation section.
    • Describe how incidents will be managed for the new or changed services.
    • Describe how problems will be managed for the new or changed services.
    • Describe how events will be managed for the new or changed services.
    • Describe the request fulfillment process for the new or changed services.
    • Describe how access will be controlled and verified for the new or changed services.
  5. Use the Discuss page to post comments and questions regarding this lesson.
  6. Review the lesson summary, key terms, review questions and assessments below.

Lesson Summary[edit]

  • Service operation coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers. Service operation also manages the technology that is used to deliver and support services. Service operation includes the following processes: event management, incident management, request fulfillment, problem management, and access management. Service operation also includes the following functions: service desk, technical management, IT operations management, and application management.[3]
  • Incident management is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents. Incident management ensures that normal service operation is restored as quickly as possible and the business impact is minimized.[4]
  • Problem management is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems. Problem management proactively prevents incidents from happening and minimizes the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.[5]
  • Event management is the process responsible for managing events throughout their lifecycle. Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.[6]
  • Request fulfilment is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests.[7]
  • Access management is the process responsible for allowing users to make use of IT services, data or other assets. Access management helps to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of assets by ensuring that only authorized users are able to access or modify them. Access management implements the policies of information security management and is sometimes referred to as rights management or identity management.[8]
  • An alert is a notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occurred. Alerts are often created and managed by system management tools and are managed by the event management process.[9]
  • An event is a change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item. The term is also used to mean an alert or notification created by any IT service, configuration item or monitoring tool. Events typically require IT operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to incidents being logged.[10]
  • Impact is a measure of the effect of an incident, problem or change on business processes. Impact is often based on how service levels will be affected. Urgency is a measure of how long it will be until an incident, problem or change has a significant impact on the business. Impact and urgency are used to assign priority, which is a category used to identify the relative importance of an incident, problem or change, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken.[11]
  • An incident is an unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service. Failure of a configuration item that has not yet affected service is also an incident.[12]
  • A known error is a problem that has a documented root cause and a workaround. Known errors are created and managed throughout their lifecycle by problem management. Known errors may also be identified by development or suppliers.[13]
  • A known error database (KEDB) is a database containing all known error records. This database is created by problem management and used by incident and problem management. The known error database may be part of the configuration management system, or may be stored elsewhere in the service knowledge management system.[14]
  • A problem is the cause of one or more incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a problem record is created, and the problem management process is responsible for further investigation.[15]
  • A service request is a formal request from a user for something to be provided. Service requests are managed by the request fulfillment process, usually in conjunction with the service desk. Service requests may be linked to a request for change as part of fulfilling the request.[16]
  • The role of communication in service operation is to communicate all aspects of service operation to management, business users, and customers.[17]
  • A workaround reduces or eliminates the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available. Workarounds for problems are documented in known error records. Workarounds for incidents that do not have associated problem records are documented in the incident record.[18]

Key Terms[edit]

Key Terms definitions are copyright © AXELOS Limited 2011. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced with the permission of AXELOS.[19]

access management
The process responsible for allowing users to make use of IT services, data or other assets.
active monitoring
Monitoring of a configuration item or an IT service that uses automated regular checks to discover the current status.
alert
A notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occurred.
application management
The function responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle.
automatic call distribution (ACD)
Use of information technology to direct an incoming telephone call to the most appropriate person in the shortest possible time.
backup
Copying data to protect against loss of integrity or availability of the original.
brainstorming
A technique that helps a team to generate ideas.
call
A telephone call to the service desk from a user. A call could result in an incident or a service request being logged.
call centre
An organization or business unit that handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing telephone calls.
call type
A category that is used to distinguish incoming requests to a service desk.
chronological analysis
A technique used to help identify possible causes of problems in which all available data about the problem is collected and sorted by date and time to provide a detailed timeline.
closed
The final status in the lifecycle of an incident, problem, change etc. When the status is closed, no further action is taken.
closure
The act of changing the status of an incident, problem, change etc. to closed.
computer telephony integration (CTI)
Computer telephony integration is a general term covering any kind of integration between computers and telephone systems.
dashboard
A graphical representation of overall IT service performance and availability.
detection
A stage in the expanded incident lifecycle which results in the incident becoming known to the service provider.
diagnosis
A stage in the incident and problem lifecycles, the purpose of which is to identify a workaround for an incident or the root cause of a problem.
diagnostic script
A structured set of questions used by service desk staff to ensure they ask the correct questions, and to help them classify, resolve and assign incidents.
directory service
An application that manages information about IT infrastructure available on a network, and corresponding user access rights.
downtime
The time when an IT service or other configuration item is not available during its agreed service time.
error
A design flaw or malfunction that causes a failure of one or more IT services or other configuration items or a mistake made by a person or a faulty process that impacts a configuration item.
escalation
An activity that obtains additional resources when these are needed to meet service level targets or customer expectations.
event
A change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item.
event management
The process responsible for managing events throughout their lifecycle. Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.
facilities management
The function responsible for managing the physical environment where the IT infrastructure is located.
failure
Loss of ability to operate to specification, or to deliver the required output.
first-line support
The first level in a hierarchy of support groups involved in the resolution of incidents.
follow the sun
A methodology for using service desks and support groups around the world to provide seamless 24/7 service.
functional escalation
Transferring an incident, problem or change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an escalation.
hierarchic escalation
Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an escalation.
identity
A unique name that is used to identify a user, person or role.
impact
A measure of the effect of an incident, problem or change on business processes.
incident
An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service.
incident management
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents.
incident record
A record containing the details of an incident.
interactive voice response (IVR)
A form of automatic call distribution that accepts user input, such as key presses and spoken commands, to identify the correct destination for incoming calls.
Ishikawa diagram
A technique that helps a team to identify all the possible causes of a problem, the output of which is a diagram that looks like a fishbone.
IT operations
Activities carried out by IT operations control, including console management/operations bridge, job scheduling, backup and restore, and print and output management.
IT operations control
The function responsible for monitoring and control of the IT services and IT infrastructure.
IT operations management
The function within an IT service provider that performs the daily activities needed to manage IT services and the supporting IT infrastructure.
job scheduling
Planning and managing the execution of software tasks that are required as part of an IT service.
Kepner and Tregoe analysis
A structured approach to problem solving in which the problem is analyzed in terms of what, where, when and extent.
known error
A problem that has a documented root cause and a workaround.
known error database (KEDB)
A database containing all known error records.
known error record
A record containing the details of a known error.
major incident
The highest category of impact for an incident.
monitor control loop
Monitoring the output of a task, process, IT service or other configuration item; comparing this output to a predefined norm; and taking appropriate action based on this comparison.
monitoring
Repeated observation of a configuration item, IT service or process to detect events and to ensure that the current status is known.
normal service operation
An operational state where services and configuration items are performing within their agreed service and operational levels.
operation
Day-to-day management of an IT service, system or other configuration item.
operations bridge
A physical location where IT services and IT infrastructure are monitored and managed.
pain value analysis
A technique used to help identify the business impact of one or more problems.
Pareto principle
A technique used to prioritize activities which says that 80% of the value of any activity is created with 20% of the effort.
passive monitoring
Monitoring of a configuration item, an IT service or a process that relies on an alert or notification to discover the current status.
priority
A category used to identify the relative importance of an incident, problem or change.
proactive monitoring
Monitoring that looks for patterns of events to predict possible future failures.
proactive problem management
Part of the problem management process, the objective of which is to identify problems that might otherwise be missed.
problem
A cause of one or more incidents.
problem management
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems.
problem record
A record containing the details of a problem.
reactive monitoring
Monitoring that takes place in response to an event.
recovery
Returning a configuration item or an IT service to a working state.
recovery point objective (RPO)
The maximum amount of data that may be lost when service is restored after an interruption.
recovery time objective (RTO)
The maximum time allowed for the recovery of an IT service following an interruption.
repair
The replacement or correction of a failed configuration item.
request fulfilment
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests.
request model
A repeatable way of dealing with a particular category of service request.
resolution
Action taken to repair the root cause of an incident or problem, or to implement a workaround.
restore
Taking action to return an IT service to the users after repair and recovery from an incident.
rights
Entitlements, or permissions, granted to a user or role.
root cause
The underlying or original cause of an incident or problem.
root cause analysis (RCA)
An activity that identifies the root cause of an incident or problem.
second-line support
The second level in a hierarchy of support groups involved in the resolution of incidents and investigation of problems.
server
A computer that is connected to a network and provides software functions that are used by other computers.
service desk
The single point of contact between the service provider and the users.
service maintenance objective (SMO)
The expected time that a configuration item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance activity.
service operation
The stage in the lifecycle of a service which coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers.
service request
A formal request from a user for something to be provided.
shift
A group or team of people who carry out a specific role for a fixed period of time.
single point of contact
Providing a single consistent way to communicate with an organization or business unit.
standard operating procedures (SOP)
Procedures used by IT operations management.
storage management
The process responsible for managing the storage and maintenance of data throughout its lifecycle.
super user
A user who helps other users, and assists in communication with the service desk or other parts of the IT service provider.
support group
A group of people with technical skills which provides the technical support needed by one or more IT service management processes.
support hours
The times or hours when support is available to the users.
technical management
The function responsible for providing technical skills in support of IT services and management of the IT infrastructure.
technical observation (TO)
A technique used in service improvement, problem investigation and availability management in which technical support staff meet to monitor the behavior and performance of an IT service and make recommendations for improvement.
third-line support
The third level in a hierarchy of support groups involved in the resolution of incidents and investigation of problems.
workaround
Reducing or eliminating the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available.

Review Questions[edit]

Enable JavaScript to hide answers.

Click on a question to see the answer.

  1. Service operation coordinates and carries out _____. Service operation also manages _____. Service operation includes the following processes: _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____. Service operation also includes the following functions: _____, _____, _____, and _____.
    Service operation coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers. Service operation also manages the technology that is used to deliver and support services. Service operation includes the following processes: event management, incident management, request fulfillment, problem management, and access management. Service operation also includes the following functions: service desk, technical management, IT operations management, and application management.
  2. Incident management is _____. Incident management ensures that _____.
    Incident management is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents. Incident management ensures that normal service operation is restored as quickly as possible and the business impact is minimized.
  3. Problem management is _____. Problem management _____.
    Problem management is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems. Problem management proactively prevents incidents from happening and minimizes the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.
  4. Event management is _____. Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.
    Event management is the process responsible for managing events throughout their lifecycle. Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.
  5. Request fulfillment is _____.
    Request fulfillment is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests.
  6. Access management is _____. Access management helps to _____. Access management implements _____ and is sometimes referred to as _____.
    Access management is the process responsible for allowing users to make use of IT services, data or other assets. Access management helps to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of assets by ensuring that only authorized users are able to access or modify them. Access management implements the policies of information security management and is sometimes referred to as rights management or identity management.
  7. An alert is _____. Alerts are often created and managed by _____.
    An alert is a notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occurred. Alerts are often created and managed by system management tools and are managed by the event management process.
  8. An event is _____. The term is also used to mean _____. Events typically require IT operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to incidents being logged.
    An event is a change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item. The term is also used to mean an alert or notification created by any IT service, configuration item or monitoring tool. Events typically require IT operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to incidents being logged.
  9. Impact is _____. Impact is often based on _____. Urgency is a measure of _____. Impact and urgency are used to assign _____, which is a category used to identify _____, and is used to identify _____.
    Impact is a measure of the effect of an incident, problem or change on business processes. Impact is often based on how service levels will be affected. Urgency is a measure of how long it will be until an incident, problem or change has a significant impact on the business. Impact and urgency are used to assign priority, which is a category used to identify the relative importance of an incident, problem or change, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken.
  10. An incident is _____. Failure of a configuration item that has not yet affected service is also an incident.
    An incident is an unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service. Failure of a configuration item that has not yet affected service is also an incident.
  11. A known error is _____. Known errors are created and managed throughout their lifecycle by _____. Known errors may also be identified by development or suppliers.
    A known error is a problem that has a documented root cause and a workaround. Known errors are created and managed throughout their lifecycle by problem management. Known errors may also be identified by development or suppliers.
  12. A known error database (KEDB) is a database containing all known error records. This database is created by _____ and used by _____. The known error database may be part of _____, or may be stored elsewhere in _____.
    A known error database (KEDB) is a database containing all known error records. This database is created by problem management and used by incident and problem management. The known error database may be part of the configuration management system, or may be stored elsewhere in the service knowledge management system.
  13. A problem is _____. The cause is not usually known at the time a problem record is created, and _____ is responsible for further investigation.
    A problem is the cause of one or more incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a problem record is created, and the problem management process is responsible for further investigation.
  14. A service request is _____. Service requests are managed by _____, usually in conjunction with the service desk. Service requests may be linked to _____.
    A service request is a formal request from a user for something to be provided. Service requests are managed by the request fulfillment process, usually in conjunction with the service desk. Service requests may be linked to a request for change as part of fulfilling the request.
  15. The role of communication in service operation is to _____.
    The role of communication in service operation is to communicate all aspects of service operation to management, business users, and customers.
  16. A workaround _____. Workarounds for problems are documented in _____. Workarounds for incidents that do not have associated problem records are documented in _____.
    A workaround reduces or eliminates the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available. Workarounds for problems are documented in known error records. Workarounds for incidents that do not have associated problem records are documented in the incident record.

Assessments[edit]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

Nuvola apps edu miscellaneous.svg Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
Progress-1000.svg Completion status: this resource is considered to be complete.

ITIL Translated Glossaries content is copyright © AXELOS Limited 2011. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced with the permission of AXELOS.