Evidence based assessment/Instruments/CRAFFT Screening Test
The CRAFFT Screening Test is a short clinical assessment tool designed to screen for substance-related risks and problems in adolescents. CRAFFT stands for the key words of the 6 items in the second section of the assessment - Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble. As of 2016, an updated version of the CRAFFT known as the “CRAFFT 2.0” has been released.
The older version of the questionnaire contains 9 items in total, answered in a "yes" or "no" format. The first three items (Part A) evaluate alcohol and drug use over the past year and the other six (Part B) ask about situations in which the respondent used drugs or alcohol and any consequences of the usage. The CRAFFT 2.0 screening tool begins with past-12-month frequency items (Part A), rather than the previous “yes/no” question for any use over the past year and the other six (Part B) ask about situations in which the respondent used drugs or alcohol and any consequences of usage.
The CRAFFT can function as a self-report questionnaire or an interview to be administered by a clinician. Both employ a skip pattern: those whose Part A score is "0" (no use) answer the Car question only of Part B, while those who report any use in Part A also answer Part B's five CRAFFT questions. Each "yes" answer is scored as "1" point and a CRAFFT total score of two or higher identifies "high risk" for a substance use disorder and warrants further assessment.
The questionnaire consists of two parts. Part A asks about alcohol and drug use over the past year, and Part B asks about situations in which the respondent used drugs or alcohol and possible consequences resulting from said use. Scores of 2 or higher indicate high risk, and distinguish between problem (problem use, abuse, dependence) usage versus no use or occasional use.
Part A asks the respondent in the last 12 months on how many days did they:
- Drink any alcohol (more than a few sips)
- Smoke any marijuana or hashish
- Use anything else to get "high".
If the respondent answers "0" to all three questions in Part A, they need only answer the first question of Part B (CAR question). If he/she reports an answer >0 to any of the above three questions, the respondent must answer all six questions in Part B.
Part B, which is the source of the CRAFFT acronym, asks the respondent:
- Have you ever ridden in a CAR driven by someone (including yourself) who was "high" or had been using alcohol or other drugs?
- Do you ever use alcohol or other drugs to RELAX, feel better about yourself, or fit in?
- Do you ever use alcohol or other drugs while you are ALONE?
- Do you ever FORGET things you did while using alcohol or other drugs?
- Do your family or FRIENDS ever tell you that you should cut down on your drinking or drug use?
- Have you ever gotten into TROUBLE while you were using alcohol or other drugs?
- EffectiveChildTherapy.Org information on Substance Abuse
- Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
- Harris, Sion K; et al. (2015). "Adolescent substance use screening in primary care: validity of computer self-administered vs. clinician-administered screening". Subst Abus (37 ed.). 1: 197–203.
- Couper, M., et. al. (2012). "The design of grids in web surveys". Soc. Sci. Comput Rev. (31 ed.). 3: 322–345.
- Knight, J. R.; Shrier, L. A.; Bravender, T. D.; Farrell, M.; Vander Bilt, J.; Shaffer, H. J. (1999-06-01). "A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 153 (6): 591–596. doi:10.1001/archpedi.153.6.591. ISSN 1072-4710.PMID 10357299.