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Tamika - Assessment Phase[edit | edit source]
Clinical description[edit | edit source]
Tamika is an 11 year old African American female in regular education. Her mother sought treatment for her increased anger, aggression, being “hyper,” having trouble sleeping, lying, talking to herself, and stealing. At home, she was often cranky and refused to share things with her two siblings and younger cousin, who were all living in the same house. When she had tantrums, she screamed, threw things, broke a plate and some toys, and escalated to the point that the mother worried she might injure someone. Tamika is starting to have problems at school, including lower grades and disruptive classroom behaviors such as talking out of turn, getting easily distracted, and frequently arguing with peers and some teachers.
Checklist scores[edit | edit source]
Tamika, her mother, and her teacher all completed the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) checklists. Here are the results, reported as T scores (M = 50, standard deviation (SD) = 10, compared to other women between 11 and 18 years of age).
Prediction phase[edit | edit source]
Let's see how we would apply the Evidence-Based Assessment principles to Tamika.
Shortlist of probable hypotheses[edit | edit source]
Based on Tamika's age and the common clinical issues, here are the possible issues:
- Oppositional defiant disorder is a leading hypothesis, based on her high externalizing scores across different reporting groups, and especially from her mother. It also is common.
- Conduct problems would be a second possible diagnosis.
- Attention problems are worth evaluating based on prevalence, though her prior academic performance does not suggest any additional reason for concern.
- Post traumatic stress disorder would be worth considering based on prevalence; nothing immediately suggests it in the presenting problem, but it could explain a similar set of symptoms.
- Parent-child conflict or an adolescent acting out in a somewhat chaotic home environment also should be a contending hypothesis.
Diagnostic interview findings[edit | edit source]
Diagnoses are based on a LEAD (Longitudinal expert evaluation of all data) consensus meeting following a Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) interview, using DSM-IV criteria. The same interviewer met with Tamika, and then her mother, then discussed any differences of opinion with them as needed to use clinical judgment. KSADS results were reviewed with a licensed clinical psychologist to arrive at a final decision.
- PTSD (100% confidence post interview)
- ADHD (65% confidence post interview)
- ODD (70% confidence post interview)
- Rule out: reactive attachment disorder (49% confidence post interview)
- Rule out: mood NOS (33% confidence post interview)
Alternatives to Diagnostic Interview[edit | edit source]
While the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) interview is the gold standard for assessing children and adolescents for psychological disorders, its length makes it impractical for most clinical settings. Instead, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is used to assess for mental illness, which is also problematic for because this scale has not trauma sub-scale. Had this assessment scale been used to evaluate Tamika, it is likely her trauma would have been missed. The scales below are specific trauma measurements that can be used in addition to the CBCL.
|Measures for Screening and Assessing PTSD in Youth|
Risk and protective factors and moderators[edit | edit source]
Tamika's gender and age make her on the bubble between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, for which she is on the younger side of the range.
Updating probability of diagnoses[edit | edit source]
Below is a worksheet with the DLRs left blank to be filled in. Answers are below.
|Tamika||Common Dx Hypotheses (A)||Starting Prob. (B)||Broad Measure (D)||Cross-informant (E)||Confirmation (G)||Treatment Phase (I), (J), (K)|
|Base Rate from Rettew et al. (2009) SDI||Scale & Score||DLR||Revised Prob.||Next Test score||DLR||Revised Prob.||K-SADS Interview|
|Any Anxiety||Specific Phobia||0.15|
|0.98||?||Other measures are better than Achenbach|
|Any Impulse Control Disorder||ODD||0.38||CBCL T
|4.18||?||No data about TRF scales for aggressive||ODD (70%)|
|0.73||0.76||ADHD combined (65%)|
|Any Mood Disorder||MDD||0.26||CBCL T
|3.78||?||Haven't found data about TRF for internalizing|
|Any Substance Abuse Disorder||0.30||CBCL #2
CBCL #99 CBCL #105
Click below for filled out chart.
Prescription phase[edit | edit source]
Genogram and family functioning[edit | edit source]
Here is a genogram of Tamika's family:
Mom is effectively a single parent raising Tamika and three brothers and a sister. The kids have three different fathers; none of them are currently in the home or contributing directly to child support. On the other hand, there is not any significant conflict with Tamika's father, and she sees him intermittently.
The plot twist hinges around the "uncle" who is shown as being both in and out of the house. Skip to the diagnostic interview section if you want the details.
Possible Treatment Selection[edit | edit source]
- Additional Resource: Evidence-Based PTSD Treatments
TF-CBT stands for Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and it was developed by Dr. Anthony Mannarino, Dr. Judith Cohen, and Dr. Esther Deblinger. It is an evidence-based treatment intended to reduce trauma symptoms in children ages 3 to 18 that have been exposed to at least one traumatic event. This treatment focuses on processing the memories, thoughts, and behaviors associated with the traumatic event. It incorporates cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, family therapy, attachment theory, and developmental neurobiology. TF-CBT is typically provided over 12 to 16 weekly sessions but may take longer for children with complex trauma (i.e., chronic or multiple experiences).
MATCH-ADTC stands for Modular Approach to Therapy for Children with Anxiety, Depression, Trauma, or Conduct Problems developed by Dr. Bruce Chorpita & Dr. John Weisz. It is an evidence-based treatment designed for children ages 6 to 15 designed to specifically target/treat anxiety, depression, trauma, PTSD, and behavioral problems. This treatment is based on years of past empirically-based research and treatments, and the therapy can also address related issues that could arise during therapy treatment. This therapy is a type of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT).
CFTSI stands for Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention and was developed by the Yale Child Study Center. It is an evidence-based treatment designed for children ages 7 to 18 and is intended for all trauma types, including single, chronic, or multiple event exposures. This therapy centers around improving communication between child and caregiver and providing behavioral skills for both parties to cope with the symptoms caused by trauma. CFTSI is typically provided over 4 sessions and materials have been translated into Spanish. 
ITCT-A stands for Integrative Treatment of Complex Trauma for Adolescents and was developed by Dr. John Briere and Dr. Cheryl Lanktree. It is an evidence-based treatment designed for children ages 12 to 21 and is applicable for those with complex trauma, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, community violence, domestic violence, medical trauma, and traumatic loss. It may also be used for those with a history of parental substance abuse. This therapy focuses on increasing self-esteem, managing triggers, improving relationships, and affect regulation. ITCT-A is provided over 16 to 36 sessions and has been adapted for Spanish-speakers. 
TARGET stands for Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy and was developed by Dr. Julian Ford and Dr. Josephine Hawke for children ages 10 and up and it is applicable for those with complex trauma, as well as those with traumatic loss. This therapy focuses on affect and emotional regulation, reducing PTSD, depression, anxiety, anger symptoms and reducing behavioral incidents. TARGET is provided over 10 sessions and has been translated into Spanish. It also has the cultural characteristics for those with low SES and those in the Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice system, Foster Families, and Single Parent Family situations. 
CCT stands for Cue-Centered Therapy and was developed by Dr. Victor Carrion, Dr. Hilit Kletter, and Dr. Ryan Matlow. It is an evidence-based treatment designed for children ages 8 to 18 and is intended for those with chronic traumatic experiences. This therapy focuses on the allostatic load, or the compounding effect of traumas throughout their lives, rather than singling out particular traumatic experiences. CCT is provided over 15 sessions and includes joint sessions for the child and their caregiver. 
DCS stands for D-cycloserine, which is an antibiotic and partial N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) agonist. This antibiotic is currently being studied in adults and children for the reduction of PTSD symptoms. In conjunction with CBT, DCS was found to reduce the adverse symptoms of PTSD; and when compared to CBT + placebo, CBT + DCS was found to maintain stability of symptoms for a longer period of time.  The antibiotic is believed to reduce PTSD symptoms by increasing the rate of adverse memory extinction.
PT stands for Play Therapy which was first introduced by Anna Freud and has been designed for children ages 3 to 13 who have experienced traumatic events. This therapy focuses on building self-confidence within the child and allowing the child to relax...
EMBR stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing...
Psychopharmacological Options include...
Process phase[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ↑ Haselgruber, A.; Sölva, K.; Lueger-Schuster, B. (2020-11-05). "Symptom structure of ICD-11 Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) in trauma-exposed foster children: examining the International Trauma Questionnaire - Child and Adolescent Version (ITQ-CA)". European Journal of Psychotraumatology 11 (1): 1818974. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1818974. ISSN 2000-8066. PMID 33244361. PMC 7678682. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33244361/.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Rettew, David C.; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Dumenci, Levent; Ivanova, Masha Y. (2009-09-01). "Meta-analyses of agreement between diagnoses made from clinical evaluations and standardized diagnostic interviews". International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 18 (3): 169–184. doi:10.1002/mpr.289. ISSN 1557-0657. PMID 19701924. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19701924.
- ↑ https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/trauma.pdf
- ↑ "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression". Evidence-Based Treatment for Anxiety Disorders and Depression: 365–458. 2021-12-31. doi:10.1017/9781108355605.021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/9781108355605.021.
- ↑ Hahn, H. (Ed.). (2012). General information - The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. CFTSI: Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/interventions/cftsi_fact_sheet.pdf
- ↑ Lanktree, C., Briere, J., & Chen, K. (2015). ITCT-A: Integrative treatment of Complex Trauma. ITCT-A: Integrative Treatment of Complex Trauma for Adolescents. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/interventions/itcta_fact_sheet.pdf
- ↑ Ford, J., & Hawke, J. (2012). Target Fact Sheet - The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. TARGET: Trauma Affect Regulation Guide for Education and Therapy . Retrieved June 23, 2022, from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/interventions/target_fact_sheet.pdf
- ↑ "CUE CENTERED THERAPY". Early Life Stress and Resilience Program(ELSRP) (in Samoan). Retrieved 2022-07-28.
- ↑ Scheeringa, Michael S.; Weems, Carl F. (2014-03). "Randomized placebo-controlled D-cycloserine with cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric posttraumatic stress". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 24 (2): 69–77. doi:10.1089/cap.2013.0106. ISSN 1557-8992. PMID 24506079. PMC 3967356. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24506079/.
- ↑ Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O. (2005-08). "Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear by D-Cycloserine: Implications for Psychotherapy". Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (4): 214–219. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00367.x. ISSN 0963-7214. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00367.x.