Culture shock refers to the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, uncertainty, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within an entirely different cultural or social environment, such as a foreign country. It grows out of the difficulties in assimilating the new culture, causing difficulty in knowing what is appropriate and what is not. This is often combined a dislike for or even disgust (moral or aesthetical) with certain aspects of the new or different culture. The term was introduced for the first time in 1954 by Kalvero Oberg.
- Adler, P. S. (1975). The transitional experience: An alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15, 13–23.
- Anderson, B. G. (1971). Adaptive aspects of culture shock. American Anthropologist, 73, 1121–1125.
- Pantelidou, S., & Craig, T. K. J. (2006). Culture shock and social support. Social Psychiatry, 41, 777–781.
- Smith, M. Z. (2006).The continuing process of cultural adjustment. The International Journal of Humanities and Peace, 49, 39–41.
- Storti, C. (1990). The art of crossing cultures. Publisher location: Intercultural Press.
- Winkelman, M. (1994). Cultural shock and adaptation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 121-126.
- See also w:Culture shock#References and Google Scholar "culture shock" search