Conservation Entrepreneurship/Student Essays

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Annelena Delgado

Collins R. Nunyonameh

Denyse Mello

Fair Trade Organizations - Handicraft

The last the last five decades have been characterized by an economic paradox: increasing wealth creation (in the global north), and excruciating poverty (in the south). Many see this paradox as a creation of the rules and norms that regulate global trade which promote inequality in market access between the north and the south. While the south is increasingly pressured by the governments and the large international financial institutions (IMF/World Bank) of the north to open their markets to cheap exports from the north, severe import restrictions and complicated regulations effectively closed the door to Northern markets for many in the South.

What is fair trade? The concept of fair trade or Alternative trade was thus introduced in the 1970s with the sole aim of correcting the inequities in the international trade system; in order ensure equitable development across the globe. Some have described the concept as “ethical globalization (Witkowski 2005 cf Arnould et al, 2009). Fair trade is inherently built on the belief that an equitable trade system that provides equal market access, respect for cultural differences and human dignity possesses an enormous potential for eradication poverty around the globe. According to Raynolds and Wilkinson (2007), fair trade is a “trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect that seek greater equity in international trade” It exists on the philosophy that “World trade has the potential to act as a powerful motor for the reduction of poverty” ( An important goal of fair trade is thus to achieve a restructuring of the international trade system that promotes equity, especially in market access between the north and the South so that international trade could serve its useful potential of reducing global poverty. In other words, it seeks to ensure “sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing rights of marginalized producers and workers” (Raynolds and Wilkinson, 2007) in the south.

Fair trade organizations: What are they? First and foremost, it is useful to see fair trade organizations just as what they are: trade organizations. However, three things distinguish fair trade organizations from all other organizations: (i) they are mission-driven organizations based on philosophies of achieving social justice; (ii) they establish new channels of trade and marketing for products from the global south to the north (Arnould et al 2009); and (iii) seek to “transfer value from consumers in the wealthy northern hemisphere to producers in the poor southern hemisphere” (ibid). All three characteristics are interlinked. The value proposition of fair trade organizations is to offer products that satisfy the demands of customers, while providing, at the same time, opportunity for customers to improve the economic wellbeing of indigent producers in other parts of the world (ibid).

An additional distinguishing feature of fair trade organizations may be that they cut out profit-oriented middle men, buying their products (often at some set minimum/premium prices) either directly or indirectly from mostly small-scale, relatively poor producers from around the world and sell these in the global north. These transactions may also involve technical assistance and/or credit to these producers, and the maintenance of trading/production relationships built on respect and trust (Nicholls, 2005). payment of pre To simplify the supply chain, most small-scale producers are organized into cooperatives or associations such as the Kenya Federation of Fair Trade; these groups are responsible for ensuring quality standards, engineering product innovations, and for facilitating the complex paper work required in exports to Western markets. While most fair trade organizations depend on these types of networks, many also obtain reasonable amount of their supplies directly from sources of interest.

Developments in the Fair trade industry Since the 1970s, the fair trade industry has been significantly boosted with the active involvement (indeed leadership) by some of the largest non-profit organizations mostly from Europe, notably Oxfam International (European Fair Trade Association, 2006) Intense advocacy of these institutions and the formation of critical support institutions such as the International Federation for Alternative Trade; Fair Trade Foundation, the European Fair Trade Association, the Fair Trade Federation the Fairtrade International etc. has resulted in impressive (even if far from ideal) results. Currently, there are over 1 million small-scale producers and workers have been organized in over 3,000 grassroots organizations and their umbrella structures across 50 countries in the global south (European Fair Trade Association, 2006). Estimates put total global fair trade sales currently at over $550 million; fair trade products are sold in over 43, 000 supermarkets in Europe alone. As at 2003, it is estimated that about 3,200 people were employed in the fair trade industry in the US, with sales amounting to about $251 million (Global Exchange, 2008) (

Does Fair trade work? Some such as Lindsay (2004) have questioned the normative underpinnings of the fair trade citing the inability of this type of trade to “maximize the financial utility of the purchaser.” According to Lyon (2006) cited in Arnould et al (2009) fair trade has failed to alter the relationship between consumers and producers, and has done nothing to halt consumerism (Johnston 2002 cf Arnould et al 2009). However, perhaps the most comprehensive study undertaken by Arnould et al (2009) to determine the impact of trade fair has found that producers participating in fair trade arrangements have, on average, higher income levels and better health indexes than non-fair trade participating producers.

Case Study: Fair Trade Organizations & Handicrafts As may be seen in the case study below, fair trade organizations are diverse both in terms of scale and in terms of product orientation. Among the most popularly fair traded goods are agricultural products especially coffee, cocoa and cotton. However, handicrafts constitute a substantial portion of fair trade products in the northern markets, for two main reasons: (1) they are relatively easy and cost less to produce by many in the global south; and (2) they represent a mechanism of promoting sustainable development. The case study below provides a more practical description of how fair trade organizations are dealing with the issue of handicrafts, the challenges, opportunities and prospects where Laurie Wilkins the owner of Alternatives Global Marketplace in Gainesville, Florida gave us a good overview of her experience as a fair trade business established. How did her business start? Wilkins is a biologist that wanted to start a business that would contribute to conservation. She didn’t know at the beginning what fair trade meant, but she knew many places where she had traveled to and she knew many people in need that had to generate income from their resources. She was motivated to do environmental products, but she didn’t know how. From her trips all over the world for her biology research purposes, she had seen many people in very poor conditions that had things to sell, so this leaded her to open a store to sell these cultural items because she was interested in sell cultural items. Then she brought these cultural items to the general consumer. So she had to start from her Business Plan, loan from the bank, find a place, and get her business started; when fair trade were not even talked about. She also has a nonprofit organization ( where she does the forest products that she is interesting that have a conservation element into that. What is her source of products and how does she deal with producers? She buys products from all over the world. The only places she doesn’t have are Australia and Middle East. When asked about the design and innovation of products and what to sell, she said that her main point is keep the fair trade for ethical business standards, try to use her own taste, and she also try to offer real tradition things that brings the culture. And some of the groups they adapt their products to the western market. Furthermore, some projects she gets involved and work close to the organizations to adapt more the products to the western and her market specifically. Some of her suppliers she is deeply involved in their project and also participates in the design process, another items she contacts the organization that work with the artisans. What are the challenges she faces to develop her business? The challenge was to sell an item that maybe cost more and what will drive people to buy if they don’t know what it is. The first challenge was educating people: the culture, the product, and why may be a good idea to buy this product. It took about 12 years to get this process done, but now 20 years later it is an opportunity because people are looking for products that may contribute for a better world. Therefore, there is still a lack of understanding in what fair trade is. Right now it is getting better because now people are talking about more these issues and some people are more awake to get information before their purchase decision, coffee has brought out this concept more acknowledgeable to the public and people are seeking for products that contribute for a better world. Another interesting issue Laurie brings out is the education need to be done for her products, and this happens from a small and simple information tag in her products to engage consumers in network by educating them, making books available, exhibits she participates, basically these are ways of telling people what fair trade is and what they are participating when purchasing these products. How is her business size and how she sees the future for fair trade? The cost of fleet is a constraint, and if she goes and shops, it is much harder because sometimes she has very hard time with custom officers. Even though some trade agreements they have give some help to bring these products. Now the products from China, especially toy, have hard time to get in the US. She has good view for the future, and she analysis herself as a successful business. She has strong customer base, great lawyer support, 4 -5 part-time employees; however there are very few fair trade stores that succeed for longer than 4 or 5 years. Nonetheless, it is hard to sell a basket from a place and such project involved in social changes, but a product that maybe cost more than a basket you can buy in Walmart for few bucks. So that where she sees the importance to have a market, but until you develop that market you will have lots of competition. She sees the future for fair trade as a good future, but it is necessary other kinds of sustainable green products or innovative ways to reach the interested market and educate this market. However, the labeling process for fair trade especially in handcraft is too expensive, but for coffee and food it is possible. The organizations help to do a good work in fair trade for handicraft products and guarantee that they come from serious and liable projects.

USEFUL LINKS: Organizations: European Fair Trade Association: World Fair Trade Organization: Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO): Fair Trade Federation: Catholic Relief Services: Cooperative Coffees: Equal Exchange: Fair Trade Resources Network: Fair Trade Towns USA: Global Exchange: Green America: Lutheran World Relief: Max Havelaar Foundation: Network of European World Shops: Sales Exchange for Refugee Rehabilitation and Vocation (SERRV): Ten Thousand Villages: TransFair USA: Humanitarian InterAction on Campus:

Human Rights Awareness on Campus (at UF): 

Recurso at the University of Florida (Student Organization): Change the World – Student Social Entrepreneurs at UF:

Stores / Fair trade business: Alternatives – Global Marketplace: Green LA girl – urban eco living by the beach: Matthew Anderson – Research Fair trade:

Reference List Arnould, Eric J., Plastina, Alejandro; and Ball, Dwayne (2009). Does Fair Trade Deliver on Its Core Value Proposition? Effects on Income, Educational Attainment, and Health in Three Countries; Journal of Public Policy & Marketing Vol. 28 (2): 186–201 Littrell M. A. and Dickson M. A., 1999. Social responsibility in the global market: Fair trade of cultural products. 365p. SAGE publication, Inc. California/USA. Nicholls A., Opal C. 2005 – Fair Trade Market-driven ethical consumption. 365p. SAGE publication, Inc. California/USA. Raynolds, L. T, Murray D and Wilkinson J, 2007: Fair Trade the challenges of transforming globalization – Routledge, NY USA 240p.

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Erica Odera

Camilla Pazos

Tshitshi Kalala

Kristen Augustine


Microfinance is the supply of basic financial services by Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), including savings, loans (microcredit), money transfers and insurance to the poor. Funds for these services come from NGOs, private donors, banking institutions and in some cases, governments. Microfinance provides these financial services to those who would otherwise be too poor, too lacking in credit, collateral and financial history to access traditional banking services that are dependent on these factors. Without microfinance institutions some poor people may access credit through informal commercial and non-commercial lenders but usually at a very high cost, and high risk to the borrower.

Throughout the world women are the main clients and are typically household-based entrepreneurs with small scale business ventures. Interestingly, while women have the least amount of access to traditional financial services they have a higher rate of repayment than their male counterparts. Although these loan amounts are small they come with proportionally higher interest rates and fees than traditional services due to the need to cover the default risk and the more labor intensive loan screening process.

The most well known MFI is the Grameen Bank which was started by Professor Muhammad Yunus in 1976 in rural Bangladesh. Yunus started the bank with the belief that credit could be a cost-effective weapon to fight poverty and be a catalyst for socio-economic development. Grameen Bank places high priority on improving the status of women through asset ownership. Branches are located in rural areas and staff go door to door to deliver bank services to their customers and collect weekly loan payments. While there have been some criticisms about Grameen it is considered an immense success and has been able to expand to 97% of Bangladeshi villages.

Another example of a microfinance institution is Kiva, an organization founded in 2005, that uses its website to provide potential individual investors with the ability to see a photo of a specific loan recipient and read about their business ideas and loan needs. Kiva works in partnership with a number of microfinance institutions throughout the world who administer the loans to local recipients and collect progress reports detailing the repayment of the loan that investors can view online.

Another example of how microfinance works and has adapted is the model utilized by United Prosperity. Unlike many other MFIs, this one provides collateral to guarantee a loan, but does not provide the money for the loan itself. Individual investors are able to review potential loan recipients through United Prosperity’s website and review the profile of borrows, their intentions for the money borrowed, the amount of money raised toward their goal and the progress of the repayments. When enough collateral has been raised for a specific venture United Prosperity releases the funds to the banking institution who then funds the full loan amount which is less than the collateral raised. This method not only allows investors to choose individual recipients to fund but also allows investors to remove their funds (after repayment) or reinvest in new ventures.

Microfinance has been shown to be a powerful tool for empowering marginalized impoverished people who otherwise would lack access to traditional banking services. The rate of repayment is considerably higher than traditional finance and loan recipients who successfully repay their loans often borrow money again to expand their initial ventures. While the poorest of the poor are not suitable candidates for microfinance (due to their inability to repay loans) microfinance is making a positive difference in the lives of millions of poor people throughout the world.

Social Marketing – Ryan Good, Ana Lima, Melissa Mazurkewicz, Greyson Nyamoga

Community-based social marketing (CBSM) is a tool that can be used to help promote social changes. This strategy is commonly used in encouraging sustainable behavior in a community. The key construct of CBSM is that specifically targeted marketing techniques are used to promote social changes. Specifically, it is used to promote behavioral change.

Proponents of social marketing assert that it is difficult to make people do good things for themselves. Rather, most people are more willing to make a change that is driven by majority decision. This herd mindset is what social marketing often attempts to combat. (Andrearsen 1994, 111). There are four broad steps used to create a social change via CBSM. First, barriers and benefits to the desired change are identified. An important part of this step is understanding the target audience. A combination of surveys, focus groups, and other observational methods can be used to learn about the aspects of the audience that are relevant. Second, one must define and use various tools to facilitate the change. These tools take many forms, including prompts and incentives. Prompts are (usually visual) stimuli intended to encourage behavior; incentives are rewards for adopting behavior. Next, after identifying the tool(s) to be used, a pilot program is conducted. Finally, after completion of the pilot, the strategy must be evaluated following implementation to determine the level of success, and whether or not to expand it (Kotler and Lee 2008, 211). Simple examples of social marketing include “turn out the light” prompts on light switches and warning labels on cigarette cartons.

For a more detailed example of social marketing, consider the case of social marketing use in Tanzania to combat malaria (see Armstrong et al. 2001). In the late 1990s, a central region including the Kilombero and Ulanga Districts was experiencing a significant spike in malaria cases, with infection rates close to 50% higher than the rest of the country. As part of an international program to protect against malaria, social marketing was used to promote use of mosquito nets in this problem area. Multiple social marketing techniques were used, including radio public service announcements, poster prompts at local markets, and mentions during several religious ceremonies. Each of the prompts espoused the value of treated nets in preventing malaria infection.

Cross-sectional surveys were conducted before the project, and after year one, two, and three of the project to assess the effect of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in this area. Results of the surveys showed an increase of net use of nearly 50% each year. By 1999, bed net use was moderate, and very high compared to the rest of Tanzania at the time. The increase in bed net use effectively decreased the prevalence of malaria in these districts, with infection rates returning to levels equitable to the rest of the country (Armstrong et al. 2001).

Despite of the successes of social marketing in cases changing individual’s behaviors, a number of criticisms against it also have been raised. Robinson (2009) lists several critiques of social marketing. Robinson claims that social marketing is all about following orders, and so in most cases tends to make an assumption that a certain behavior should, and can, be adopted. It rarely asks whether the prescribed behavior make sense, is capable of being adopted or whether it needs to be reinvented, matured, debugged, or replaced with an entirely different behavior. Context is central to the adoptability of behaviors and products. Social marketing should therefore go beyond the simple ideas of product, price, place, and promotion and address the more complicated and relevant interactions of policy and partnership.

Social Marketing strategies are built on psychological and change theories, but the process of imposing these particular psychological theories on a real life behaviors of real people tends to be so complicated due to different lived experiences in the real world (Andrearsen 1994). Often times CBSM programs tend to be skewed in favor of the system in power, such as the state. Their “experts” decide what behaviors are wrong and need to be changed, what behaviors are right and need to be retained in the community, which group needs to changes, and more. Both Robinson and Andrearsen point out that social marketing programs—especially those with wide reach—should often be viewed with a skeptical eye. Being based in the community alone does not grant a program validity. At the same time, both also acknowledge the potential benefits of such programs. It is necessary to recognize both the potential benefits and pitfalls of social marketing schemes, and the behavior change should always be evaluated in the context of the community in which it is being promoted.


Andrearsen, A.R. (1994). Social Marketing: Its Definition and Domain. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 13, 108-114.

Armstrong Schellenberg, J., Abdulla, S., Nathan, R., Mukasa, O., Marchant, T., Kikumbih, N., et al. (2001). Effect of large-scale social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in rural Tanzania. Lancet, 357(9264), 1241.

Kotler, P. and Lee N.R. (2008). Social Marketing: Influencing Behaviors for Good, 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Robinson, L. (2009). The problem with Social Marketing - Enabling changes.

Elihu, Dave, Micah, Jenn

Bottom of the Pyramid

C.K. Prahalad, a professor from Michigan State, coined the term Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) to describe the 4-5 billion people in developing countries who are underserved by the private sector (Prahalad 2010). The BoP has also been described as the portion of the world’s population living on less than $2.00 PPP (purchasing power parity) per day (Karnani 2007). The BoP is considered a huge opportunity and potential market for the private sector. The individual purchasing power in the BoP is quite low, but the collective purchasing power creates a market worth $13 trillion dollars PPP (Prahalad 2010). Below, we look at why the BoP market is important, how the BoP market is unique, and what criticisms exist for marketing to the BoP.

The BoP market is often overlooked and disregarded simply because people living in poverty face challenges in purchasing consumer goods. For medium to large companies to ignore this market, however, is a mistake because the poor already get most of their goods and services from the private sector. Common sense dictates that the BoP should only be spending their money on essentials to survive; yet, it has been shown that the BoP market still enjoys consuming “luxury goods.” People at the BoP may not be able to buy a car, but the demand for entertainment goods like televisions, or other creature comforts such as a cook stove are certainly exist (Martinez and Carbonell 2007). The BoP market is also important as a way to provide equitable access to goods and services to all of humanity. There is no reason why people should be shut out of the opportunity to improve their lives through consumption. Furthermore, in addition to giving BoP consumers’ greater choice and opportunity, the untapped market at the BoP represents a huge growth opportunity for companies. Revenues gained from emerging markets can account for up to 40% of yearly sales. Despite the huge growth potential, companies remain reticent to fully engage developing markets. A major drawback of selling to the poor is that companies do not understand the market at the BoP.

The BoP market is different in many ways from the top of the pyramid. Because it is unique, innovation must be used to access and conduct business on the BoP’s terms. To be successful in the BoP, companies will need to abandon their traditional product and development strategies, and instead, work backwards from what the consumer is able to afford to determine product and price point viability. Companies will also need to be adaptive as they take their products to different locations and cultures to maximize the customer base. Likewise, companies must also be mindful of the education level at the BoP and the particular demand for goods. Most of the people in the BoP live in harsh environments and need durable long-lasting products rather than disposable goods. Therefore, companies will also need to keep environmental conditions at the forefront of their product design and sale strategy. Finally, companies will have to be creative with marketing, distribution, and overall access, because many BoP markets are media dark and have poor infrastructure (Prahalad 2010).

There are many criticisms of marketing to the BoP. Initially, the prospect of a $13 trillion PPP market seems too good to be true. According to some, it may be. Karnani, for instance, considers the Bop market to only be worth $0.3 trillion PPP because the poor have to spend 80% of their incomes on food, clothes and shelter. The remaining 20% is not sufficient to acquire luxury goods (Karnani 2007). Another criticism of marketing to the BoP, perhaps the greatest criticism, is the idea of poverty alleviation. Marketing to the BoP is represented as means of alleviating poverty. However, Prahalad does not make very many convincing arguments that by engaging the poor as consumers it will alleviate poverty and move the poor into the lower and middle class. Of Prahalad's twelve case studies, only three demonstrate that the poor have an increase in their income as result of being engaged by the market - a flimsy argument that consumption within the BoP can alleviate poverty (Landrum 2007). The idea and practice of marketing to the BoP is very interesting and holds potential for future efforts in emerging economics. Innovation will be required to make a profit at the BoP. Certainly, there are hurdles to overcome in engaging this market, such as the sheer size of the market itself. The concept of marketing to the BoP is not likely to fade quickly, nor should it. The BoP should not be overlooked and denied opportunity, in this increasingly small world we are living in.

Sources: Karnani, A. (2007). "The Mirage of Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid." California Management Review 49(4): 90-111. Landrum, N. (2007). "Advancing the “Base of the Pyramid” debate." Strategic Management Review 1(1): 1-12. Martinez, J. and M. Carbonell (2007). "Value at the bottom of the pyramid." Business Strategy Review 18(3): 50-55. Prahalad, C. (2010). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits, Wharton.

Jennifer Carr

Angela (Reid) Quashigah

Wikiversity paper


Latin America is home to some of the world’s most important biodiversity. However, the majority of the people there live in conditions of extreme poverty. Due to the tradeoff between exploitation for economic benefit versus conservation of natural areas, sustainable development is currently one of the most important needs in the region (Bascomb & Taylor 2008). Ecotourism represents one of the greatest opportunities for achieving sustainable development in this region.

Definitions and underlying philosophies for ecotourism vary widely. Caution must be exercised because it is a term with positive connotation which can be coined to mask the negative impacts of alternative, self-serving agendas at times. Major components of ecotourism include environmental and social responsibility, appreciation for nature and culture, conservation of natural areas, well-being of local peoples, community involvement and empowerment, and sustainable use of natural resources. The definition we will use for this paper is as follows:

"Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." (TIES 1990)

Ecotourism can be differentiated from general tourism by certification schemes. Certification schemes are standards for measuring compliance with the various aspects of ecotourism. However, they are not always straightforward because they depend upon how one defines the components of ecotourism (Medina 2005). For example, terms such as “local,” “participation,” and “benefit,” could have very different meanings to different people. There are currently 104 different ecotourism certification labels available (Honey & Stewart 2002). Certification schemes are generally expensive and beyond the reach of small ecotourism ventures. Larger ecotourism ventures may have the funds to pay for certification, yet they may find ways of getting around the regulations set forth by the schemes. The degree of regulation could be too little for actually protecting the environment, or too great for small/medium-sized businesses to remain profitable. There is also a cultural disjunction between those setting forth the regulations (usually Western agencies) and the indigenous peoples’ views (Buultjens et al 2010).

There are risks associated with ecotourism, even when the venture proves successful. Total dependency on ecotourism for revenue creates vulnerability in the local economy (Stem et al 2003). Seasonal fluxes in numbers of tourists and levels of business can cause dramatic fluctuations in income. Political instability and unpredictable climatic events can cause loss of business in vulnerable regions. In addition, overexploitation in the name of ecotourism can increase degradation of the environmental resources upon which it depends.

Ecotourism provides a wide range of benefits as well. It brings employment, improved infrastructure, and educational opportunities to communities who otherwise may not have access to these things. It increases business to local stores and encourages growth of a customer base for other local attractions. Ecotourism brings a financial return equal to or greater than that associated with other land uses for the same area of land, while generally more sustainable if practiced in such a manner (Stem et al 2003). Ecotourism also helps generate a wider international awareness of the concerns of a particular area, bringing increased attention and the potential for funding/donations to the region.

Case studies show that the most successful ecotourism ventures are those that have remained small-scale despite pressures to expand (Bascomb & Taylor 2008). The authenticity of these opportunities over other more commercialized attractions is what keeps these tourists coming. The locals also report greater satisfaction with the tourism projects when they can interact with tourists on a more personal basis in order to foster an appreciation for their local culture. Smaller ventures are generally run by local entrepreneurs rather than large industries. These provide a greater benefit to the community (Medina 2005). They encourage the formation of new entrepreneurial endeavors, which can fulfill different niches while sharing the same customer base. Entrepreneurs report an increase in benefits with increased tourism, while those working for larger companies report no relative benefit from increased numbers of tourists.

Ecotourism is most effective as one part of a comprehensive community development strategy and conservation plan. There must be other things in place as well for such a plan to meet its goals, and for ecotourism to be an effective part of that. Ecotourism involves changing people’s values, which requires an effort over time and produces a delayed result. Legislation, on the other hand, produces instant action. One case study cited decreases in deforestation and hunting after ecotourism was put in place, but proposed that legislation actually had the most influential effect on these practices (Stem et al 2003). In order to practice sustainable development and conservation, we need both. There is also a need for more education and support for local businesses so that communities themselves take greater ownership of ecotourism ventures. In addition, there is a need to change the current certification scheme. While regulating bodies make rules and provide funding, they forget to account for the perspective of those who have been utilizing and living on the same land for centuries.

Ecotourism, with its many benefits and pitfalls, continues to stand out as the most viable opportunity for conservation and community development to link together in the natural-resource-rich areas of the developing world. Practitioners must keep in mind the drawbacks outlined in this essay when developing ecotourism projects and utilize the lessons learned from prior examples in this emerging market niche. Entrepreneurs should take advantage of the strategies that have proved successful in this field and model new ventures with like characteristics, as well as use careful trial-and-error with room for correction when implementing new, innovative ideas.


Bascomb, B. & Taylor, M. 2008. “Ecotourism and sustainability in a Q’eqchi’ Maya community, Guatemala.” FOCUS on Geography 51, no. 3: 11-16.

Buultjens, J., D. Gale, and Nadine E. White. 2010. "Synergies between Australian indigenous tourism and ecotourism: possibilities and problems for future development." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18, no. 4: 497-513.

Honey, M. & Stewart, E. 2002. Introduction. In M. Honey (ed.) Ecotourism and Certification (pp. 1-29). Washington, DC: Island.

Medina, L. K. 2005. "Ecotourism and certification: Confronting the principles and pragmatics of socially responsible tourism." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13, no. 3: 281.

Stem, Caroline J., James P. Lassoie, David R. Lee, and David J. Deshler. 2003. "How 'Eco' is Ecotourism? A Comparative Case Study of Ecotourism in Costa Rica." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 11, no. 4: 322.

TIES. 1990. The International Ecotourism Society.

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) released in 2010 the 11th annual report about of relationships between entrepreneurship activities and national economic development. This issue focuses on impacts of global recession on entrepreneurship activities and the extent which entrepreneurship can help reverse a downward economic trend. The methodology adopted was analyzing the recession impact on perspectives of social entrepreneurship; on funding to support new businesses; on entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions, entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurial aspirations. This report was based on more than 180,000 interviews conducted between May and October in 54 countries. The findings across countries were grouped into 3 stages of economic development as defined by the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report using GDP per capita and share of primary goods in the exports. The main findings shows decline in entrepreneurial activities and reduce people perception about start a new business is a good opportunity. However in most developed countries, the economic crises are seemed as potential opportunity to start a new business at same time that have a feeling of star a new business due lack of opportunities for good jobs. The section about social entrepreneurship elucidates some questions about entrepreneurial goal. Despite social entrepreneurships represents only 1.8% of the sample, they represent a segment that could have significant importance as motivation to start a new business as well as show a trend toward the introduction of social goals in business oriented entrepreneurs. Some of the findings show a tendency of not-for- profit entrepreneurial activity in more developed countries, and an operation of social activities as secondary goal for for-profit entrepreneurial activities in developing countries. Social entrepreneurship profile differs along level of development. Less developed countries have oldest age group involved and proportionally less low educational level in social entrepreneurships. Woman social entrepreneur participation in the work force is almost constant among countries groups, while men socio entrepreneur is significantly greater in more developed countries.

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