Cloning is the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens all the time in nature—for example in prokaryotic organisms (organisms which lack a cell nucleus), such as bacteria and yeasts, create genetically identical duplicates of themselves using binary fission or budding. Here a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. Natural clones, also known as identical twins, occur in humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA. Identical twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but they are genetically different from either parent.
- See also the Wikipedia articles: Cloning, Human cloning, Molecular cloning, Molecular cloning, Cloning vector, and Ethics of cloning.
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