WikiJournal of Science/Paranthodon/XML

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    <full_title>WikiJournal of Science/Paranthodon</full_title>
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This is an open access article distributed under the&nbsp;[ Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction, provided the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
<span id="Figure 1"></span><span id="Fig 1"></span><span id="Fig. 1"></span><span id="Image 1"></span><span id="Figure1"></span><span id="Fig1"></span><span id="Fig.1"></span><span id="Image1"></span><div style="text-align: left; float:left;  clear:left;  padding:10px 10px 15px 0px;"><div style="font-size:   90%;            line-height: 1.3em;            width:       calc(250px );"><div style="position:relative; ">250px</div>Figure 1 | &nbsp;Reconstruction of the skull of ''Paranthodon''; grey material is unknown. Scale bar = 10cm.</div></div>''Paranthodon'' (<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="'p' in 'pie'">p</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'r' in 'rye'">r</span><span title="/æ/: 'a' in 'bad'">æ</span><span title="'n' in 'nigh'">n</span><span title="/θ/: 'th' in 'thigh'">θ</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="'d' in 'dye'">d</span><span title="/ɒ/: 'o' in 'body'">ɒ</span><span title="'n' in 'nigh'">n</span></span>/</span></span>) is a genus of extinct stegosaurian dinosaur that lived in South Africa during the Early Cretaceous, between 139 and 131&nbsp;million years ago. Discovered in 1845, it was one of the first stegosaurians found. Its only remains, a partial skull and isolated teeth, were found in the Kirkwood Formation. British paleontologist Richard Owen initially identified the fragments as those of the pareiasaur ''Anthodon''. After remaining untouched for years in the British Museum of Natural History, the partial skull was identified by South African paleontologist Robert Broom as belonging to a different genus; he named the specimen ''Palaeoscincus africanus''. Several years later, Hungarian paleontologist Franz Nopcsa, unaware of Broom's new name, similarly concluded that it represented a new taxon, and named it ''Paranthodon owenii''. Since Nopcsa's species name was assigned after Broom's, and Broom did not assign a new genus, both names are now synonyms of the current binomial, ''Paranthodon africanus''. The genus name combines the Ancient Greek ''para'' (near) with the genus name ''Anthodon'', to represent the initial referral of the remains.In identifying the remains as those of ''Palaeoscincus'', Broom initially classified ''Paranthodon'' as an ankylosaurian, a statement backed by the research of Coombs in the 1970s. However, in 1929, Nopcsa identified the taxon as a stegosaurid, with which most modern studies agree. In 1981, the genus was reviewed with modern taxonomy, and found to be a valid genus of stegosaurid. However, a 2018 review of ''Paranthodon'' could only identify one distinguishing feature, and while that study still referred it to Stegosauria based on similarity and multiple phylogenetic analyses, no diagnostic features of the group could be identified in ''Paranthodon''.