WikiJournal of Medicine/Western African Ebola virus epidemic/XML

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    <full_title>WikiJournal of Medicine/Western African Ebola virus epidemic</full_title>
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     <title>Western African Ebola virus epidemic</title>
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     <surname>Anis</surname><given_name>Ozzie</given_name><ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4061-2429</ORCID>
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     <surname>et al.</surname><affiliation>Wikipedia editors of Western_African_Ebola_virus_epidemic</affiliation><link>https://xtools.wmflabs.org/articleinfo/en.wikipedia.org/Western_African_Ebola_virus_epidemic//2019-05-11</link>
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This is an open access article distributed under the&nbsp;[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction, provided the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
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The Western African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The first cases were recorded in Guinea in December 2013; later, the disease spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone, with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. It caused significant mortality, with the case fatality rate reported which was initially considerable, while the rate among hospitalized patients was 57–59%, the final numbers 28,616 people, including 11,310 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 40%.<sup>*</sup> Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali,<sup>*</sup> and isolated cases were recorded in Senegal, the United Kingdom and Italy. In addition, imported cases led to secondary infection of medical workers in the United States and Spain but did not spread further.<sup>*</sup> The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then began to decline gradually, following the commitment of substantial international resources. As of  8&nbsp;May&nbsp;2016<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;">[//en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=WikiJournal_of_Medicine/Western_African_Ebola_virus_epidemic/XML&action=edit &#91;update&#93;]</sup>World Health Organization (WHO) and respective governments reported a total of 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths (39.5%), though the WHO believes that this substantially understates the magnitude of the outbreak.<sup>*</sup>On 8 August 2014, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern was declared and on 29 March 2016, the WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the outbreak. Subsequent flare-ups occurred; the last was declared over on 9 June 2016, 42 days after the last case tested negative on 28 April 2016 in Monrovia.The outbreak left about 17,000 survivors of the disease, many of whom report post-recovery symptoms termed post-Ebola syndrome, often severe enough to require medical care for months or even years. An additional cause for concern is the apparent ability of the virus to "hide" in a recovered survivor's body for an extended period of time and then become active months or years later, either in the same individual or in a sexual partner.<sup>*</sup> In December 2016, the WHO announced that a two-year trial of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine appeared to offer protection from the variant of EBOV responsible for the Western Africa outbreak. The vaccine has not yet been given regulatory approval, but it is considered to be effective and is the only  prophylactic which offers protection hence 300,000 doses have been stockpiled.<sup>*</sup><span id="*link"></span> Note: ''Due to the nature of the subject, many citations are drawn from contemporary media reports as sources and have been marked with an *.''
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  1. 1.0 1.1 WHO Ebola Response Team (23 September 2014). "Ebola virus disease in West Africa – the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections". New England Journal of Medicine 371 (16): 1481–1495. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100. PMID 25244186. PMC 4235004. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235004/. "... we estimate that the case fatality rate is 70.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69 to 73) among persons with known clinical outcome of infection." 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Case Fatality Rate for ebolavirus". University of Edinburgh. 2015. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
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  13. Meltzer, Martin I.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Santibanez, Scott et al. (26 September 2014). "Estimating the future number of cases in the Ebola epidemic – Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su63e0923a1.htm. 
  14. Worl, Justin (2014). "New Ebola Cases Could Hit 10,000 Per Week". Time. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  15. Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa (Report). WHO. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EmergencyEnd
  17. Interim advice on the sexual transmission of the Ebola virus disease (Report). WHO. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
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  19. WHO (10 June 2016). Situation Report Ebola (PDF) (Report). WHO. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  20. Yasmin, Seema (29 February 2016). "Why Ebola Survivors Struggle with New Symptoms". Scientific American. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  21. Geisbert, Thomas W. (December 2016). "First Ebola virus vaccine to protect human beings?". The Lancet 389 (10068): 479–480. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32618-6. PMID 28017402. 
  22. "Ebola vaccine results are encouraging – but preliminary". PBS. December 23, 2016.


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