WikiJournal of Medicine/The Hippocampus/XML

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    <full_title>WikiJournal of Medicine/The Hippocampus</full_title>
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     <year>2019</year>  
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     <title>The Hippocampus</title>
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     <surname>Wright</surname><given_name>Marion</given_name>
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     <surname>et al.</surname><affiliation>Wikipedia editors of Hippocampus</affiliation><link>https://xtools.wmflabs.org/articleinfo/en.wikipedia.org/Hippocampus//2017-03-11</link>
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     <year>2019</year>
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     <doi>10.15347/wjm/2017.003</doi>     
     <resource>https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/WikiJournal of Medicine/The Hippocampus</resource>
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This is an open access article distributed under the&nbsp;[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction, provided the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος ''hippos'', "horse" and κάμπος ''kampos'', "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex;(allocortical) and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cortical surface. It contains two main interlocking parts: the hippocampus proper (also called Ammon's horn) and the dentate gyrus.In Alzheimer's disease (and other forms of short-term memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (hypoxia), encephalitis, or medial temporal lobe epilepsy. People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia (the inability to form and retain new memories).In rodents as model organisms, the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for spatial memory and navigation. Many neurons in the rat and mouse hippocampus respond as place cells: that is, they fire bursts of action potentials when the animal passes through a specific part of its environment. Hippocampal place cells interact extensively with head direction cells, whose activity acts as an inertial compass, and conjecturally with grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex.Since different neuronal cell types are neatly organized into layers in the hippocampus, it has frequently been used as a model system for studying neurophysiology. The form of neural plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) was first discovered to occur in the hippocampus and has often been studied in this structure. LTP is widely believed to be one of the main neural mechanisms by which memories are stored in the brain.
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  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Amaral2007-1a
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  4. Pearce JM (Sep 2001). "Ammon's horn and the hippocampus". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71 (3): 351. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.3.351. PMID 11511709. PMC 1737533. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1737533/.